Response of soil organic carbon to land-use change in central Brazil: a large-scale comparison of Ferralsols and Acrisols
- 578 Downloads
Background and aims
The southeastern part of the Amazon region is one of the largest agricultural frontiers in the world, leading to extensive land-use change. This paper provides evidence for the impacts of land-use change on soil organic carbon (OC) stocks along a large scale for Ferralsols and Acrisols including subsoil.
We took soil samples to 100 cm depth for native vegetation, pasture and crop-field along a 1000 km agricultural transect in central Brazil to determine OC stocks and, by using a stable isotope approach, losses of forest-derived OC.
At the scale of individual plots, soil OC stocks indicate a highly heterogeneous response to land-use change (e.g. in Ferralsols in 0–30 cm from −45 % to +57 % Mg OC ha−1 after conversion to pasture), but relatively minor responses when considering the complete transect (i.e. no significant OC changes for similar land-use type). Acrisols evidenced a slower decline of forest-derived OC and simultaneously a faster accumulation of pasture-derived OC than Ferralsols. Surprisingly, the impact of land-use change was more pronounced in the subsoil.
Our results emphasize the role of subsoils on carbon cycling which has been previously underestimated, but may also raise doubts whether OC stocks in soil is an appropriate parameter to assess the impacts of land-use conversion on climate change.
KeywordsLand-use change Soil organic carbon Tropical soils Amazon Large-scale
This study was carried out in the framework of the integrated project CarBioCial funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) under the grant number 01LL0902F. We express our gratitude to all involved stakeholders and farmers for their professional support and cooperation to realize our studies, and we highly appreciate the trustful partnership of UFTM. Furthermore, we sincerely would like to thank Silke Bokeloh for excellent laboratory work, Steffen Söffker for important support in the field, and all our colleges from CarBioCial for effective interdisciplinary cooperation and stimulating discussions, and particularly Stefan Hohnwald and Michael Klinger for project coordination. Finally we want to thank the two anonymous reviewers and Robert D. McCulloch who helped us to further improve this study.
- Boeni M, Bayer C, Dieckow J, Conceição PC, Dick DP, Knicker H, Salton JC, Macedo MCM (2014) Organic matter composition in density fractions of Cerrado Ferralsols as revealed by CPMAS 13C NMR: influence of pastureland, cropland and integrated crop-livestock. Agric Ecosyst Environ 190:80–86. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2013.09.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Carvalheiro K, Nepstad D (1996) Deep soil heterogeneity and fine root distribution in forests and pastures of eastern Amazonia. Plant Soil 279–285Google Scholar
- Conen F, Zerva A, Arrouays D, Jolivet C, Jarvis PG, Grace J, Mencuccini M (2005) The carbon balance of forest soils: detectability of changes in soil carbon stocks in temperate and boreal forests. SEB Exp Biol Ser:235–249Google Scholar
- Diekow J, Mielniczuk J, Knicker H, Bayer C, Dick DP, Kögel-Knabner I (2005) Soil C and N stocks as affected by cropping systems and nitrogen fertilisation in a Southern Brazil Acrisol managed under no-tillage for 17 years. Soil Tillage Res 81:87–95. doi: 10.1016/j.still.2004.05.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ellert, B.H., Bettany, J.R. (1995) Calculation of organic matter and nutrients stored in soils under contrastin managmenet regimes. Can J Soil Sci 529–538.Google Scholar
- Fearnside PM (2012) The theoretical battlefield_carbon accounting for the carbon benefits of maintaining brazils Amazon forest. Futur Sci Gr 145–148Google Scholar
- Fearnside PM, Righi CA, Graça PMLDA, Keizer EWH, Cerri CC, Nogueira EM, Barbosa RI (2009) Biomass and greenhouse-gas emissions from land-use change in Brazil’s Amazonian “arc of deforestation”: the states of Mato Grosso and Rondônia. For Ecol Manag 258:1968–1978. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2009.07.042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Harrison RB, Footen PW, Strahm BD (2011) Deep soil horizons: contribution and importance to soil carbon pools and in assessing whole-ecosystem response to management and global change. For Sci 57:67–76Google Scholar
- IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (2012) Manual Técnico da Vegetação BrasileiraGoogle Scholar
- INPE - Instituto National de Pesiquisas Espasiais (2014) Projeto Prodes – Monitoramento da floresta Amazonica Brasilieira por satélite Available at: http://www.obt.inpe.br/prodes/prodes_1988_2014.htm (accessed at 20.05.2015)
- IUSS Working Group WRB (2014) World reference base for soil resources 2014. Reports, World Soil ResourcesGoogle Scholar
- Lapola DM, Martinelli L a, Peres CA, Ometto JPHB, Ferreira ME, Nobre C a, Aguiar APD, Bustamante MMC, Cardoso MF, Costa MH, Joly C a, Leite CC, Moutinho P, Sampaio G, Strassburg BBN, Vieira ICG (2013) Pervasive transition of the Brazilian land-use system. Nat Clim Chang 4:27–35. doi: 10.1038/nclimate2056 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Matuszak, A. (2010) Differences between arithmetic, geometric, and harmonic means http://economistatlarge.com/finance/applied-finance/differences-arithmetic-geometric-harmonic-means (accessed 20.05.2015)
- Mosquera O, Buurman P, Ramirez BL, & Amezquita MC (2012) Carbon stocks and dynamics under improved tropical pasture and silvopastoral systems in Colombian Amazonia. Geoderma 189–190:81–86. doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2012.04.022
- Numata I, Chadwick OA, Roberts D a, Schimel JP, Sampaio FF, Leonidas FC, Soares JV (2007) Temporal nutrient variation in soil and vegetation of post-forest pastures as a function of soil order, pasture age, and management, Rondônia. Brazil Agric Ecosyst Environ 118:159–172. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2006.05.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Saatchi SS, Harris NL, Brown S, Lefsky M, Mitchard ETA, Salas W, Zutta BR, Buermann W, Lewis SL, Hagen S, Petrova S, White L, Silman M, Morel A (2011) Benchmark map of forest carbon stocks in tropical regions across three continents. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:9899–9904. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1019576108 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Smith P, Davies CA, Ogle S, Zanchi G, Bellarby J, Bird N, Boddey RM, McNamara NP, Powlson D, Cowie A, Noordwijk M, Davis SC, Richter DDB, Kryzanowski L, Wijk MT, Stuart J, Kirton A, Eggar D, Newton-Cross G, Adhya TK, Braimoh AK (2012) Towards an integrated global framework to assess the impacts of land use and management change on soil carbon: current capability and future vision. Glob Chang Biol 18:2089–2101. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02689.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Stockmann U, Adams MA, Crawford JW, Field DJ, Henakaarchchi N, Jenkins M, Minasny B, McBratney AB, Courcelles VDRD, Singh K, Wheeler I, Abbott L, Angers D a, Baldock J, Bird M, Brookes PC, Chenu C, Jastrow JD, Lal R, Lehmann J, O’Donnell AG, Parton WJ, Whitehead D, Zimmermann M (2013) The knowns, known unknowns and unknowns of sequestration of soil organic carbon. Agric Ecosyst Environ 164:80–99. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2012.10.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Twongyirwe R, Sheil D, Majaliwa JGM, Ebanyat P, Tenywa MM, van Heist M, Kumar L (2013) Variability of soil organic carbon stocks under different land uses: a study in an afro-montane landscape in Southwestern Uganda. Geoderma 193-194:282–289. doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2012.09.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- West LT, Beinroth FH, Summer ME, Kang BT (1998) Ultsiol; characteristics and impacts on society. Adv Agron 63:163–224Google Scholar
- Yoneyama T, Okada H, Chongpraditnum P, Ando S, Prasertsak P, Hirai K, Division SS, Buri S, Crops F (2006) Effects of vegetation and cultivation on δ13C values of soil organic carbon1 and estimation of its turnover in Asian tropics: a case study in Thailand. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 52:95–102. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0765 CrossRefGoogle Scholar