Effects of individual and combined metal foliar fertilisers on iron- and manganese-deficient Solanum lycopersicum plants
- 719 Downloads
Using Fe- and Mn-deficient Solanum lycopersicum plants, we investigated the effects of Fe and Mn foliar fertilisers, either individually or combined, on plant biomass, leaf chlorophyll and metal micronutrient levels in leaves and roots.
Plants were grown in hydroponics with different combinations of 0 or 45 μM Fe and 0 or 4.6 μM Mn. Foliar fertiliser formulations (9 mM FeSO4 and/or 3 mM MnSO4, supplemented with a surfactant) were applied in three consecutive doses. Fertilisation was applied to the first three leaf levels, while upper leaf levels were left untreated.
Iron and Mn deficiency led to characteristic symptoms. Foliar treatments increased concentrations of Fe and Mn, biomass and chlorophyll in treated leaves, although re-greening was incomplete. Approximately 11–12 % of the Fe increase was in roots (likely mediated via phloem transport), but no Fe increase occurred in untreated leaves. Regarding Mn, a 2 % increase occurred in untreated leaves, but no increase occurred in roots.
Iron fertilisation was effective not only in leaves treated with the fertiliser but also in roots, whereas Mn fertilisation had major effects on treated leaves and minor effects on untreated ones. The combined application of Fe + Mn was not detrimental to Fe- or Mn-deficient plants.
KeywordsFoliar fertilisation Iron Manganese Multi-elemental fertilisers Tomato
Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid
Radical oxygen species
Soil–plant analysis development
This study was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (projects IPT-2012-0004-060000, AGL2012-31988 and AGL2013-42175-R, co-financed with FEDER) and the Aragón Government (group A03). We thank J.J. Peguero-Pina for his help in carrying out fluorescence measurements. J.J.R was supported by a JAEPost-CSIC contract. We appreciate the technical assistance of Marga Palancar for the AAS analysis.
- Abadía J, Abadía A (1993) Iron and plant pigments. In: Barton LL, Hemming BC (eds) Iron chelation in plants and soil microorganisms. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 327–344Google Scholar
- Bameri M, Abdollahi R, Mohammadi-Nejad G, Yousefi K, Tabatabaie S (2012) Effect of different microelement treatments on wheat (Triticum aestivum) growth and yield. Int Res J Appl Basic Sci 3:219–223Google Scholar
- Castillon P, Le Souder C (2011) Fertilisation des céréales: évitez les cocktails d’oligo-éléments. Perspectives Agricoles 376:46–47Google Scholar
- El-Jendoubi H, Vázquez S, Calatayud A, Vavpetič P, Vogel-Mikuš K, Pelicon P, Abadía J, Abadía A, Morales F (2014) The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics. Front. Plant Sci 5:2Google Scholar
- Fernández V, Sotiropoulos T, Brown P (2013) Foliar fertilization. Scientific principles and field practices. International Fertilizer Industry Association, ParisGoogle Scholar
- Hasani M, Zamani Z, Savaghebi G, Fatahi R (2012) Effects of zinc and manganese as foliar spray on pomegranate yield, fruit quality and leaf minerals. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 12:471–480Google Scholar
- Moosavi AA, Ronaghi A (2011) Influence of foliar and soil applications of iron and manganese on soybean dry matter yield and iron–manganese relationship in a calcareous soil. Aust J Crop Sci 5:1550–1556Google Scholar
- Naga Sivaiah K, Swain S, Sandeep Varma V, Raju B (2013) Effect of foliar application of micronutrients on growth parameters in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.). Discourse J Agric Food Sci 1:146–151Google Scholar
- Rawashdeh HM, Florin S (2015) Foliar application with iron as a vital factor of wheat crop growth, yield quantity and quality: a review. Int J Agric Pol Res 3:368–376Google Scholar
- Singh J, Singh M, Jain A, Bhardwaj S, Singh A, Singh DK, Bhushan B, Dubey SK (2013) An introduction of plant nutrients and foliar fertilization: a review. In: Precision farming: a new approach. Daya Publishing Co., New Delhi, pp. 252–320Google Scholar