Plant and Soil

, Volume 402, Issue 1–2, pp 27–45 | Cite as

Effects of individual and combined metal foliar fertilisers on iron- and manganese-deficient Solanum lycopersicum plants

  • Sandra Carrasco-Gil
  • Juan José Rios
  • Ana Álvarez-Fernández
  • Anunciación Abadía
  • José María García-Mina
  • Javier Abadía
Regular Article

Abstract

Aims

Using Fe- and Mn-deficient Solanum lycopersicum plants, we investigated the effects of Fe and Mn foliar fertilisers, either individually or combined, on plant biomass, leaf chlorophyll and metal micronutrient levels in leaves and roots.

Methods

Plants were grown in hydroponics with different combinations of 0 or 45 μM Fe and 0 or 4.6 μM Mn. Foliar fertiliser formulations (9 mM FeSO4 and/or 3 mM MnSO4, supplemented with a surfactant) were applied in three consecutive doses. Fertilisation was applied to the first three leaf levels, while upper leaf levels were left untreated.

Results

Iron and Mn deficiency led to characteristic symptoms. Foliar treatments increased concentrations of Fe and Mn, biomass and chlorophyll in treated leaves, although re-greening was incomplete. Approximately 11–12 % of the Fe increase was in roots (likely mediated via phloem transport), but no Fe increase occurred in untreated leaves. Regarding Mn, a 2 % increase occurred in untreated leaves, but no increase occurred in roots.

Conclusions

Iron fertilisation was effective not only in leaves treated with the fertiliser but also in roots, whereas Mn fertilisation had major effects on treated leaves and minor effects on untreated ones. The combined application of Fe + Mn was not detrimental to Fe- or Mn-deficient plants.

Keywords

Foliar fertilisation Iron Manganese Multi-elemental fertilisers Tomato 

Abbreviations

Chl

Chlorophyll

EDTA

Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid

ROS

Radical oxygen species

SPAD

Soil–plant analysis development

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (projects IPT-2012-0004-060000, AGL2012-31988 and AGL2013-42175-R, co-financed with FEDER) and the Aragón Government (group A03). We thank J.J. Peguero-Pina for his help in carrying out fluorescence measurements. J.J.R was supported by a JAEPost-CSIC contract. We appreciate the technical assistance of Marga Palancar for the AAS analysis.

Supplementary material

11104_2015_2759_Fig9_ESM.gif (238 kb)
Supplementary Figure S1

Application of foliar fertilisers in metal-deficient Solanum lycopersicum plants (GIF 238 kb)

11104_2015_2759_MOESM1_ESM.tif (1.6 mb)
High resolution image (TIFF 1.60 mb)

References

  1. Abadía J, Abadía A (1993) Iron and plant pigments. In: Barton LL, Hemming BC (eds) Iron chelation in plants and soil microorganisms. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 327–344Google Scholar
  2. Abadía J, Nishio JN, Terry N (1986) Chlorophyll-protein and polypeptide composition of Mn-deficient sugar beet thylakoids. Photosynth Res 7:237–245CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Álvarez-Fernández A, García-Laviña P, Fidalgo C, Abadía J, Abadía A (2004) Foliar fertilization to control iron chlorosis in pear (Pyrus communis L.) trees. Plant Soil 263:5–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Álvarez-Fernández A, Paniagua P, Abadía J, Abadía A (2003) Effects of Fe deficiency chlorosis on yield and fruit quality in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch). J Agr Food Chem 51:5738–5744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Álvarez-Fernández A, Díaz-Benito P, Abadía A, López-Millán AF, Abadía J (2014) Metal species involved in long-distance metal transport in plants. Front Plant Sci 5:105CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Bameri M, Abdollahi R, Mohammadi-Nejad G, Yousefi K, Tabatabaie S (2012) Effect of different microelement treatments on wheat (Triticum aestivum) growth and yield. Int Res J Appl Basic Sci 3:219–223Google Scholar
  7. Broadley M, Brown PIC, Rengel Z, Zhao F (2012) Function of nutrients: micronutrients. In: Marschner P (ed) Marschner’s mineral nutrition of higher plants, 3rd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 191–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cakmak I, Kalayci M, Kaya Y, Torun AA, Aydin N, Wang Y, Arisoy Z, Erdem H, Yazici A, Gokmen O, Ozturk L, Horst WJ (2010) Biofortification and localization of zinc in wheat grain. J Agr Food Chem 58:9092–9102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Castillon P, Le Souder C (2011) Fertilisation des céréales: évitez les cocktails d’oligo-éléments. Perspectives Agricoles 376:46–47Google Scholar
  10. Drakatos PA, Kalavrouziotis IK, Hortis TC, Varnanas SP, Drakatos SP, Bladenopoulou S, Fanariotou IN (2002) Antagonistic action of Fe and Mn in Mediterranean-type plants irrigated with wastewater effluents following biological treatment. Int J Environ Stud 59:125–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. El-Jendoubi H, Vázquez S, Calatayud A, Vavpetič P, Vogel-Mikuš K, Pelicon P, Abadía J, Abadía A, Morales F (2014) The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics. Front. Plant Sci 5:2Google Scholar
  12. Fernández V, Del Río V, Abadía J, Abadía A (2006) Foliar iron fertilization of peach (Prunus persica (L.) batsch): effects of iron compounds, surfactants and other adjuvants. Plant Soil 289:239–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fernández V, Ebert G (2005) Foliar iron fertilization: a critical review. J Plant Nutr 28:2113–2124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fernández V, Eichert T (2009) Uptake of hydrophilic solutes through plant leaves: current state of knowledge and perspectives of foliar fertilization. CRC Cr Rev Plant Sci 28:36–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fernández V, Brown P (2013) From plant surface to plant metabolism: the uncertain fate of foliar-applied nutrients. Front Plant Sci 4:289CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Fernández V, Sotiropoulos T, Brown P (2013) Foliar fertilization. Scientific principles and field practices. International Fertilizer Industry Association, ParisGoogle Scholar
  17. Ghasemi-Fasaei R, Ronaghi A, Maftoun M, Karimian N, Soltanpour PN (2002) Influence of FeEDDHA on iron–manganese interaction in soybean genotypes in a calcareous soil. J Plant Nutr 26:1815–1823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gobarah ME, Tawfik MM, Zaghloul SM, Amin GA (2014) Effect of combined application of different micronutrients on productivity and quality of sugar beet plants (Beta vulgaris L.). Int J Plant Soil Sci 3:589–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hasani M, Zamani Z, Savaghebi G, Fatahi R (2012) Effects of zinc and manganese as foliar spray on pomegranate yield, fruit quality and leaf minerals. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 12:471–480Google Scholar
  20. He W, Shohag MJI, Wei Y, Feng Y, Yang X (2013) Iron concentration, bioavailability and nutritional quality of polished rice affected by different forms of foliar iron fertilizer. Food Chem 141:4122–4126CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Heenan DP, Campbell LC (1983) Manganese and iron interactions on their uptake and distribution in soybean (Glycine max (L.) merr.). Plant Soil 70:317–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Husted S, Laursen KH, Hebbern CA, Schmidt SB, Pedas P, Haldrup A, Jensen PE (2009) Manganese deficiency leads to genotype-specific changes in fluorescence induction kinetics and state transitions. Plant Physiol 150:825–833CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Larbi A, Abadía A, Abadía J, Morales F (2006) Down co-regulation of light absorption, photochemistry and carboxylation in Fe-deficient plants growing in different environments. Photosynth Res 89:113–126CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Larbi A, Abadía A, Morales F, Abadía J (2004) Fe resupply to Fe-deficient sugar beet plants leads to rapid changes in the violaxanthin cycle and other photosynthetic characteristics without significant de novo chlorophyll synthesis. Photosynth Res 79:59–69CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Moosavi AA, Ronaghi A (2011) Influence of foliar and soil applications of iron and manganese on soybean dry matter yield and iron–manganese relationship in a calcareous soil. Aust J Crop Sci 5:1550–1556Google Scholar
  26. Moraghan JT (1992) Iron–manganese relationship in white lupine grown on a calciaquoll. Soil Sci Soc Am J 56:471–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Moraghan JT, Freeman TP, Whitehead D (1986) Influence of FeEDDHA and soil temperature on the growth of two soybean varieties. Plant Soil 95:57–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Morales F, Abadía A, Abadía J (1998) Photosynthesis, quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence and thermal energy dissipation in iron-deficient sugar beet leaves. Aust J Plant Physiol 25:403–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Morrissey J, Guerinot ML (2009) Iron uptake and transport in plants: the good, the bad and the ionome. Chem Rev 109:4553–4567CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Nikolic M, Cesco S, Römheld V, Varanini Z, Pinton R (2003) Uptake of iron (59Fe) complexed to water-extractable humic substances by sunflower leaves. J Plant Nutr 26:2243–2252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Naga Sivaiah K, Swain S, Sandeep Varma V, Raju B (2013) Effect of foliar application of micronutrients on growth parameters in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum mill.). Discourse J Agric Food Sci 1:146–151Google Scholar
  32. Nishio JN, Abadía J, Terry N (1985) Chlorophyll-proteins and electron transport during iron nutrition-mediated chloroplast development. Plant Physiol 78:296–299CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Papadakis IE, Sotiropoulos TE, Therios IN (2007) Mobility of iron and manganese within two citrus genotypes after foliar applications of iron sulfate and manganese sulfate. J Plant Nutr 30:1385–1396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rawashdeh HM, Florin S (2015) Foliar application with iron as a vital factor of wheat crop growth, yield quantity and quality: a review. Int J Agric Pol Res 3:368–376Google Scholar
  35. Rodríguez-Lucena P, Hernández-Apaolaza L, Lucena JJ (2010) Comparison of iron chelates and complexes supplied as foliar sprays and in nutrient solution to correct iron chlorosis of soybean. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 173:120–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rodríguez-Lucena P, Tomasi N, Pinton R, Hernández-Apaolaza L, Lucena JJ, Cesco S (2009) Evaluation of 59Fe-lignosulfonate complexes as Fe sources for plants. Plant Soil 325:53–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rombolà AD, Bruggemann W, Tagliavini M, Marangoni B, Moog PR (2000) Iron source affects iron reduction and re-greening of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) leaves. J Plant Nutr 23:1751–1765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Roosta HR, Mohsenian Y (2012) Effects of foliar spray of different Fe sources on pepper (Capsicum annum L.) plants in aquaponic system. Sci Hortic-Amsterdam 146:182–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Schmidt SB, Pedas P, Laursen KH, Schjoerring JK, Husted S (2013) Latent manganese deficiency in barley can be diagnosed and remediated on the basis of chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements. Plant Soil 372:417–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shenker M, Plessner OE, Tel-Or E (2004) Manganese nutrition effects on tomato growth, chlorophyll concentration and superoxide dismutase activity. J Plant Physiol 161:197–202CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Singh J, Singh M, Jain A, Bhardwaj S, Singh A, Singh DK, Bhushan B, Dubey SK (2013) An introduction of plant nutrients and foliar fertilization: a review. In: Precision farming: a new approach. Daya Publishing Co., New Delhi, pp. 252–320Google Scholar
  42. Socha AL, Guerinot ML (2014) Mn-euvering manganese: the role of transporter gene family members in manganese uptake and mobilization in plants. Front Plant Sci 5:106CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. White PJ (2012) Long-distance transport in the xylem and phloem. In: Marschner P (ed) Marschner’s mineral nutrition of higher plants, 3rd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 49–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zain M, Khan I, Khan Qadri R, Ashraf U, Hussain S, Minhas S, Siddiquei A, Jahangir M, Bashir M (2015) Foliar application of micronutrients enhances wheat growth, yield and related attributes. Am J Plant Sci 6:864–869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhang H, Yang H, Wang Y, Gao Y, Zhang L (2013) The response of ginseng grown on farmland to foliar-applied iron, zinc, manganese and copper. Ind Crop Prod 45:388–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sandra Carrasco-Gil
    • 1
  • Juan José Rios
    • 1
  • Ana Álvarez-Fernández
    • 1
  • Anunciación Abadía
    • 1
  • José María García-Mina
    • 2
  • Javier Abadía
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant Nutrition, Aula Dei Experimental StationConsejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)ZaragozaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Biology, Agricultural Chemistry and Biology, Group - CMI Roullier, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of NavarraPamplonaSpain

Personalised recommendations