The fate of fertiliser P in soil under pasture and uptake by subterraneum clover – a field study using 33P-labelled single superphosphate
Background and aims
Single superphosphate (SSP) is a major source of phosphorus (P) used in grazing systems to improve pasture production. The aim of this experiment was to determine the fate of fertiliser P in clover pastures under field conditions.
A procedure was developed to radiolabel SSP granules with a 33P radiotracer, which was then applied to the soil surface (equivalent to ~12 kg P ha−1) of a clover pasture. Recovery of fertiliser P was determined in clover shoots, fertiliser granules and soil fractions (surface layer: 0–4 cm and sub-surface layer: 4–8 cm).
The P diffusion patterns of the 33P-labelled SSP granules were not significantly different to those of commercial SSP granules (P > 0.05). Recovery of fertiliser P in clover shoots was 30–35 %. A considerable proportion of the fertiliser P (~28 %) was recovered in the surface soil layer and was largely inorganic P.
Recovery of fertiliser P by clover plants was up to 35 % in the year of application. Much of the fertiliser P in soil fractions was inorganic P, which highlights the importance of inorganic P forms and dynamics in soils under clover pasture on a single season timeframe at these sites.
KeywordsFertilizer Improved grasslands NSP Phosphorus cycling Trifolium subterraneum
Analysis of variance
Australasian Soil and Plant Analysis Council
Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy
Liquid scintillation counter
National Institute of Standards and Technology
Phosphorus buffering index
Phosphorus use efficiency
Polyvinyl chloride cylinders
Water soluble phosphorus
- AOAC (1980) Water-soluble phosphorus. In: Horwitz W (ed) Methods of analysis, 3rd edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Cook RD, Weisberg S (1982) Residuals and influence in regression. Chapman & Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Core Team R (2014) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, ViennaGoogle Scholar
- Dion HG, Dehm JE, Spinks JWT (1949) Study of fertilizer uptake with radioactive phosphorus. IV. The availability of phosphate carriers in calcareous soils. Sci Agric 29:512–526Google Scholar
- Frossard E, Achat DL, Bernasconi SM, Bünemann EK, Fardeau JC, Jansa J, Morel C, Rabeharisoa L, Randriamanantsoa L, Sinaj S, Tamburni F, Oberson A (2011) Chapter 3: the use of tracers to investigate phosphate cycling in soil-plant systems. In: Bünemann EK, Oberson A, Frossard E (eds) Phosphorus in action - biological processes in soil phosphorus cycling. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- Haynes RJ, Williams PH (1992) Long-term effect of superphosphate on accumulation of soil phosphorus and exchangeable cations on a grazed, irrigated pasture site. Plant Soil 142:123–133Google Scholar
- Leikam DF, Achorn FP (2005) Phosphate fertilizers: production, characteristics, and technologies. In: Sims JT, Sharpley AN (eds) Phosphorus: agriculture and the environment. ASA CSS SSSA, MadisonGoogle Scholar
- Levene H (1960) Robust tests for equality of variances. In: Olkin I, Ghurye SG, Hoeffding W, Madow WG, Mann HB (eds) Contributions to probability and statistics: essays in honor of Harold Hotelling. Stanford University Press, StanfordGoogle Scholar
- McLaren TI, Simpson RJ, McLaughlin MJ, Smernik RJ, McBeath TM, Guppy CN, Richardson AE (2015) An assessment of various measures of soil P and the net accumulation of P in fertilized soils under pasture. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci (published online). doi:10.1002/jpln.201400657
- Mitchell J, Kristianson AM, Dion HG, Spinks JWT (1952) Availability of fertilizer and soil phosphorus to grain crops, and the effect of placement and rate of application on phosphorus uptake. Sci Agric 32:511–525Google Scholar
- Olsen SR, Cole CV, Watanabe FS (1954) Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. USDA, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Simpson JR, Stefanski A, Marshall DJ, Moore AD, Richardson AE (2010) The farm-gate phosphorus balance of sheep grazing systems maintained at three contrasting soil fertility levels. In: Dove H, Culvenor RA (eds) Proceedings of 15th Agronomy Conference. The Regional Institute Ltd, LincolnGoogle Scholar
- Spinks JWT, Barber SA (1947) Study of fertilizer uptake using radioactive phosphorus. Sci Agric 27:145–156Google Scholar