Plant and Soil

, Volume 401, Issue 1–2, pp 79–91 | Cite as

Screening for internal phosphorus utilisation efficiency: comparison of genotypes at equal shoot P content is critical

  • Terry J. Rose
  • Asako Mori
  • Cecile C. Julia
  • Matthias Wissuwa
Regular Article



Progress in improving the internal phosphorus utilisation efficiency of crops has been limited, which may be due to poor screening methods that allow differences in P uptake among genotypes grown in soil to mask genotypic differences in shoot biomass produced per unit of shoot P (PUE). We investigated alternative soil and hydroponic screening methods for their capacity to produce a consensus ranking of genotypes with regard to PUE.


Six rice genotypes previously identified in hydroponic screening studies as being high, intermediate or low in PUE were screened using multi P rate hydroponic and soil-based experiments.


Comparisons made at each rate of soil-P supply produced estimates of PUE strongly biased by P uptake differences among genotypes. Using multiple-rate data to derive response functions per genotype showed that similar P content was achieved at different rates of P supply but that high-PUE genotypes clearly separated from intermediate- and low-PUE genotypes if equal P content was used. Ranking analysis suggested that results obtained from soil agreed well with those from the hydroponic study.


PUE was significantly influenced by genotype and P supply, but there was no significant genotype x P supply interaction. Hence, we conclude that screening genotypes using hydroponics at one or two P supply levels is the most cost- and time effective means to screen large numbers of rice genotypes for PUE.


Genotypic difference Hydroponics Phosphorus efficiency Phosphorus use efficiency Nutrient utilisation efficiency Rice 

Supplementary material

11104_2015_2565_MOESM1_ESM.docx (113 kb)
Supplementary Figure 1 Relationship between relative shoot biomass yield and shoot P concentration at 52 DAS for rice genotypes (a) Dawebyan, (b) DJ123, (c) Santhi, (d) IR64, (e) Mudgo and (f) Taichung. Lines are fits of exponential (Mitscherlich) Eq2 to the observed data. (DOCX 112 kb)


  1. Barrow NJ, Mendoza RE (1990) Equations for describing sigmoid yield responses and their application to some phosphate responses by lupins and subterranean clover. Fertil Res 22:181–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beebe SE, Rojas-Pierce M, Yan XL, Blair MW, Pedraza F, Munoz F, Tohme J, Lynch JP (2006) Quantitative trait loci for root architecture traits correlated with phosphorus acquisition in common bean. Crop Sci 46:413–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bolland MDA, Brennan RF (2005) Critical phosphorus concentrations for oats, barley, triticale, and narrow-leaf lupin. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 36:1177–1186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bolland MDA, Brennan RF (2008) Comparing the phosphorus requirements of wheat, lupin and canola. Aust J Agric Res 59:983–998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bovill WD, Huang CY, McDonald GK (2013) Genetic approaches to enhancing phosphorus-use efficiency (PUE) in crops: challenges and directions. Crop Pasture Sci 64:179–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cao HX, Zhang ZB, Sun CX, Shao HB, Song WY, Xu P (2009) Chromosomal location of traits associated with wheat seedling water and phosphorus use efficiency under different water and phosphorus stresses. Int J Mol Sci 10:4116–4136CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen J, Xu L, Cai Y, Xu J (2009) Identification of QTLs for phosphorus utilization efficiency in maize (Zea mays L.) across P levels. Euphytica 167:245–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cordell D, Drangert J, White S (2009) The story of phosphorus: global food security and food for thought. Glob Environ Chang 19:292–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gamuyao R, Chin JH, Pariasca-Tanaka J, Pesaresi P, Catausan S, Dalid C, Slamet-Loedin I, Tecson-Mendoza EM, Wissuwa M, Heuer S (2012) The protein kinase OsPSTOL1 from traditional rice confers tolerance of phosphorus deficiency. Nature 488:535–539CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Hayes JE, Zhu Y-G, Mimura T, Reid RJ (2004) An assessment of the usefulness of solution culture in screening for phosphorus efficiency in wheat. Plant Soil 261:91–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Holloway B, Bertrand I, Frischke AJ, Brace D, McLaughlin M, Shepperd W (2001) Improving fertiliser efficiency on calcareous and alkaline soils with fluid sources of P, N and Zn. Plant Soil 236:209–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Huang CY, Shirley N, Genc Y, Shi B, Langridge P (2011) Phosphate utilization efficiency correlates with expression of low-affinity phosphate transporters and noncoding RNA, IPS1, in barley. Plant Physiol 156:1217–1229CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Koide Y, Pariasca-Tanaka J, Rose TJ, Fukuo A, Konisho K, Yanagihara S, Fukuta Y, Wissuwa M (2013) QTLs for phosphorus-deficiency tolerance detected in upland NERICA varieties. Plant Breed 132:259–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ma Q, Rengel Z, Rose TJ (2009) The effectiveness of deep placement of fertilisers is determined by crop species and edaphic conditions in Mediterranean-type environments: a review. Aust J Soil Res 47:19–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Otani T, Ae N (1996) Sensitivity of phosphorus uptake to changes in root length and soil volume. Agron J 88:371–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ozturk L, Eker S, Torun B, Cakmak I (2005) Variation in phosphorus efficiency among 73 bread and durum wheat genotypes grown in a phosphorus-deficient calcareous soil. Plant Soil 269:69–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pariasca-Tanaka J, Satoh K, Rose T, Mauleon R, Wissuwa M (2009) Stress response versus stress tolerance: a transcriptome analysis of two rice lines contrasting in tolerance to phosphorus deficiency. Rice 2:67–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Richardson AE, Hocking PJ, Simpson RJ, George TS (2009) Plant mechanisms to optimise access to soil phosphorus. Crop Pasture Sci 60:124–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rose TJ, Wissuwa M (2012) Rethinking internal phosphorus utilization efficiency: a new approach is needed to improve PUE in grain crops. Adv Agron 116:183–215Google Scholar
  20. Rose TJ, Rengel Z, Bowden J, Ma Q (2007) Differential accumulation of phosphorus and potassium by canola cultivars compared to wheat. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 170:404–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rose TJ, Pariasca-Tanaka J, Rose MT, Fukuta Y, Wissuwa M (2010) Genotypic variation in grain phosphorus concentration; and opportunities to improve P-use efficiency in rice. Field Crop Res 119:154–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rose TJ, Rose MT, Pariasca-Tanaka J, Heuer S, Wissuwa M (2011) The frustration with utilization: why have improvements in internal phosphorus utilization efficiency in crops remained so elusive? Front Plant Sci 2:1–5. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2011.00073 Google Scholar
  23. Rose TJ, Liu L, Wissuwa M (2013) Improving phosphorus efficiency in cereal crops: is breeding for reduced grain phosphorus concentration part of the solution? Front Plant Sci. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2013.00444 Google Scholar
  24. Simpson RJ, Oberson A, Culvenor RA, Ryan MH, Veneklaas EJ, Lambers H, Lynch JP, Ryan PR, Delhaize E, Smith FA, Smith SE, Harvey PR, Richardson AE (2011) Strategies and agronomic interventions to improve the phosphorus-use efficiency of farming systems. Plant Soil 349:89–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Su JY, Xiao Y, Li M, Liu Q, Li B, Tong Y, Jia J, Li Z (2006) Mapping QTLs for phosphorus-deficiency tolerance at wheat seedling stage. Plant Soil 281:25–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Veneklaas EJ, Lambers H, Bragg J, Finnegan PM, Lovelock CE, Plaxton WC, Price CA, Scheible W-R, Shane MW, White PJ, Raven JA (2012) Opportunities for improving phosphorus-use efficiency in crop plants. New Phytol 195:306–320CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Wang X, Shen J, Liao H (2010) Acquisition or utilization, which is more critical for enhancing phosphorus efficiency in modern crops? Plant Sci 179:302–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wissuwa M, Ae N (2001) Genotypic variation for tolerance to phosphorus deficiency in rice and the potential for its exploitation in rice improvement. Plant Breed 120:43–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wissuwa M, Yano M, Ae N (1998) Mapping of QTLs for phosphorus-deficiency tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Theor Appl Genet 97:777–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wissuwa M, Mazzola M, Picard C (2009) Novel approaches in plant breeding for rhizosphere-related traits. Plant Soil 321:409–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wissuwa M, Kondo K, Fukuda T, Mori A, Rose MT, Pariasca-Tanaka J, Kretzschmar T, Haefele SM, Terry J. Rose TJ (2015) Unmasking novel loci for internal phosphorus utilization efficiency in rice germplasm through Genome-Wide Association Analysis. PLOS OneGoogle Scholar
  32. Yang M, Ding G, Shi L, Xu F, Meng J (2011) Detection of QTL for phosphorus efficiency at vegetative stage in Brassica napus. Plant Soil 339:97–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Yoshida S, Forno DA, Cock J (1976) Laboratory manual for physiological studies of rice. International Rice Research Institute, ManilaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Terry J. Rose
    • 1
    • 2
  • Asako Mori
    • 3
  • Cecile C. Julia
    • 1
    • 2
  • Matthias Wissuwa
    • 3
  1. 1.Southern Cross Plant ScienceSouthern Cross UniversityLismoreAustralia
  2. 2.Southern Cross GeoScienceSouthern Cross UniversityLismoreAustralia
  3. 3.Crop, Livestock and Environment DivisionJapan International Research Centre for Agricultural ScienceTsukubaJapan

Personalised recommendations