Endophytic bacterial community composition in wheat (Triticum aestivum) is determined by plant tissue type, developmental stage and soil nutrient availability
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To understand effects of tissue type, growth stage and soil fertilisers on bacterial endophyte communities of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Hereward).
Endophytes were isolated from wheat grown under six fertiliser conditions in the long term Broadbalk Experiment at Rothamsted Research, UK. Samples were taken in May and July from root and leaf tissues.
Root and leaf communities differed in abundance and composition of endophytes. Endophytes were most abundant in roots and the Proteobacteria were most prevalent. In contrast, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, the Gram positive phyla, were most prevalent in the leaves. Both fertiliser treatment and sample time influenced abundance and relative proportions of each phylum and genus in the endosphere. A higher density of endophytes was found in the Nil input treatment plants.
Robust isolation techniques and stringent controls are critical for accurate recovery of endophytes. The plant tissue type, plant growth stage, and soil fertiliser treatment all contribute to the composition of the endophytic bacterial community in wheat. These results should help facilitate targeted development of endophytes for beneficial applications in agriculture.
KeywordsBacterial endophyte Community structure Culture dependent Fertiliser RFLP Nitrogen
We are grateful to the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and to Novozymes for providing the funding for a PhD studentship for R. Robinson. We would particularly like to thank Dr Stephen Powers (Rothamsted Research) for his help and advice with statistical analysis and Dr Ben Raymond (Imperial College) for statistical advice and recommendations.
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