Soil conditioning and plant-soil feedbacks in a modified forest ecosystem are soil-context dependent
- 537 Downloads
There is potential for altered plant-soil feedback (PSF) to develop in human-modified ecosystems but empirical data to test this idea are limited. Here, we compared the PSF operating in jarrah forest soil restored after bauxite mining in Western Australia with that operating in unmined soil.
Native seedlings of jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata), acacia (Acacia pulchella), and bossiaea (Bossiaea ornata) were grown in unmined and restored soils to measure conditioning of chemical and biological properties as compared with unplanted control soils. Subsequently, acacia and bossiaea were grown in soils conditioned by their own or by jarrah seedlings to determine the net PSF.
In unmined soil, the three plant species conditioned the chemical properties but had little effect on the biological properties. In comparison, jarrah and bossiaea conditioned different properties of restored soil while acacia did not condition this soil. In unmined soil, neutral PSF was observed, whereas in restored soil, negative PSF was associated with acacia and bossiaea.
Soil conditioning was influenced by soil context and plant species. The net PSF was influenced by soil context, not by plant species and it was different in restored and unmined soils. The results have practical implications for ecosystem restoration after human activities.
KeywordsAcacia pulchella Bossiaea ornata Eucalyptus marginata Restoration Rhizodeposition
Phospholipid–fatty acid profile
Community level physiological profile
Principal co-ordinate analysis
Nematode channel ratio
We thank The Mexican National Council for Science and Technology (CONACYT), John Koch (ALCOA World Alumina Australia) and Tim Morald (University of Western Australia - UWA) for their support and help with field work, Michael Smirke (UWA) for his technical support during laboratory work, Deborah Lin, Khalil Kariman and Alonso Calvo Araya (UWA) for their help during the experiment, Vivien Vanstone, Sarah Collins and staff (DAFWA) for help with nematode extraction as well as Jackie Nobbs (SARDI) for training on the identification of nematode trophic groups. Finally, we thank Richard Hobbs (UWA) and Ken Dodds (ChemCentre – WA) for their support to complete the PLFA analyses.
- Anderson MJ (2001) A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Austral Ecol 26:32–46Google Scholar
- Anderson MJ, Gorley RN, Clarke KR (2008) PERMANOVA+ for PRIMER: Guide to software and statistical methods. Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences (IIMS) Massey University, AucklandGoogle Scholar
- Anderson MJ (2010) Detecting multivariate changes in biological assemblages: experimental design and data analysis. Multivariate analysis of complex experimental designs using PERMANOVA+ for PRIMER. Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences (IIMS) Massey University, AucklandGoogle Scholar
- Bell DT, Heddle EM (1989) Floristic, morphologic and vegetational diversity. In: Dell B, Havel JJ, Malajczuk N (eds) The jarrah forest: a complex Mediterranean ecosystem. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
- Brimecombe MJ, De Leij FA, Lynch JM (2001) The effect of root exudates on rhizosphere microbial populations. In: Pinton R, Varanini Z, Nannipieri P (eds) The rhizosphere: biochemistry and organic substances at the plant-soil interface. Marcel Dekker Editorial, USAGoogle Scholar
- Campbell CD, Chapman SJ, Cameron CM, Davidson MS, Potts JM (2003) A rapid microtiter plate method to measure carbon dioxide evolved from carbon substrate amendments so as to determine the physiological profiles of soil microbial communities by using whole soil. Appl Environ Microb 69:3593–3599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Coleman DA, Crossley DA, Hendrix PF (2004) Fundamentals of soil ecology 2nd edition. Elsevier Academic Press, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- George SJ, Tibbett M, Braimbridge MF, Davis SG, Vlahos S, Ryan M (2006) Phosphorus fertiliser placement and seedling success in Australian jarrah forest. In: Fourie A, Tibbett M (eds) Mine Closure. Australian Centre for Geomechanics, PerthGoogle Scholar
- Hooper DJ, Hallmann J, Subbotin SA (2005) Methods for extraction, processing and detection of plant and soil nematodes. In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J (eds) Plant parasitic nematodes in subtropical and tropical agriculture, 2nd edn. CAB Publishing, UKGoogle Scholar
- Lavelle P, Spain AV (2003) Soil Ecology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, USAGoogle Scholar
- Malajczuk N, McComb AJ (1979) The microflora of unsuberized roots of Eucalyptus calophylla R.Br. and Eucalyptus marginata Donn ex Sm. seedlings grown in soil suppressive and conducive to Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands. I Rhizosphere bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi. Aust J Bot 27:235–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mangan SA, Schnitzer SA, Herre EA, Mack KML, Valencia MC, Sanchez EI, Bever JD, (2010) Negative plant–soil feedback predicts tree-species relative abundance in a tropical forest. Nature 466 doi: 10.1038/nature09273
- Marschner H (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants 2nd edition. Academic, Great BritainGoogle Scholar
- Neumann G, Römheld V (2001) The release of root exudates as affected by the plant’s physiological status. In: Pinton R, Varanini Z, Nannipieri P (eds) The rhizosphere: biochemistry and organic substances at the plant-soil interface. Marcel Dekker Editorial, USAGoogle Scholar
- Neumann G (2007) Root exudates and nutrient cycling. In: Marschner P, Rengel Z (eds) Nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Springer, GermanyGoogle Scholar
- Rayment GE, Higginson FR (1992) Australian laboratory handbook of soil and water chemical methods: Australian soil and land survey handbook Vol. 3. Inkata Press, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
- Tibbett M (2010) Large-scale mine site restoration of Australian eucalypt forests after bauxite mining: soil management and ecosystem development. In: Batty LC, Hallberg K (eds) Ecology of industrial pollution. Cambridge University Press, UKGoogle Scholar
- Uren NC (2001) Types, amounts, and possible functions of compounds released into the rhizosphere by soil-grown plants. In: Pinton R, Varanini Z, Nannipieri P (eds) The Rhizosphere: Biochemistry and organic substances at the soil-plant interface. Marcel Dekker Editorial, USAGoogle Scholar
- Yeates GW (2003) Nematodes as soil indicators: functional and biodiversity aspects. Biol Fertil Soils 37:199–210Google Scholar
- Zavaleta-Mejía E, Kaloshian I (2012) Plant-nematode interactions. In: Manzanilla-López RH, Marbán-Mendoza N (eds) Practical Plant Nematology. Biblioteca básica de Agricultura, MéxicoGoogle Scholar