Plant and Soil

, Volume 390, Issue 1–2, pp 401–417 | Cite as

Assessment of climate change impacts on soil organic carbon and crop yield based on long-term fertilization applications in Loess Plateau, China

Regular Article

Abstract

Background and Aims

Climate change may significantly impact crop yields and soil. In this study the DNDC model, together with climatic outputs from Hadley Centre’s general circulation model (HadCM3), was used to investigate the influence of projected climate change and management practices on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and crop yield of the Chinese Loess Plateau. The results identify management practices with the greatest potential to mitigate climate change and to increase SOC in this area.

Methods

Field experiments on winter-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and summer maize (Zea mays L.) rotation included a control and four types of fertilization treatments: T1 (control), T2 (inorganic fertilizer), T3 (NPK inorganic fertilization combined with wheat or maize residue return), T4 (NPK inorganic fertilization combined with low amount of manure) and T5 (NPK inorganic fertilization combined with high amount of manure). DNDC model was calibrated using the field data from 1991 to 2000 and validated from 2001 to 2010. Furthermore, a baseline climate and three future climate scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) were considered.

Results

DNDC model effectively simulated the SOC and crop yields. The findings showed that in 1991–2010, T1 maintained its initial SOC level but reduced crop yields, while T2 promoted crop production with less effect on soil carbon storage. However, T3, T4 and T5 enhanced both crop yield and soil carbon, and the best results were observed under T5. The investigated climate scenarios substantially affect SOC content and crop yields. In terms of SOC content, B1 had great effects on T1, T4 and T5, while A1B on T2 and T3. Considering crop yields, in all treatments, the trends are B1 > A1B > A2 for winter-wheat and A2 > A1B > B1 for summer maize, respectively.

Conclusions

The impacts of climate changes on SOC dynamics and crop yields were different depending on the management applied. Thus, the adoption of certain management practices in the Chinese Loess Plateau agroecosystems could be critical in maximizing SOC sequestration and reducing CO2 in the atmosphere. Reasonably low temperature and high precipitation can enhance winter-wheat yields, while maize yields need medium temperature and precipitation. We recommended the combined application of inorganic and organic fertilizers to achieve a balance between food security and soil carbon sequestration objectives.

Keywords

Climate change Crop yields DNDC model Fertilization Soil organic carbon 

References

  1. Acharya CL, Bisnoi SK, Yaduvanshi HS (1988) Effect of long-term application of fertilizers and organic and inorganic amendments under continuous cropping on soil physical and chemical properties in an Alfisol. Indian J Agric Sci 58:509–516Google Scholar
  2. Bannayan M, Lotfabadi SS, Sanjani S, Mohammadian A, Agaalikhani M (2011) Effects of precipitation and temperature on cereal yield variability in northeast of Iran. Int J Biometeorol 55:387–401CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhagat RM, Verma TS (1991) Impact of rice straw management on soil physical properties and wheat yield. Soil Sci 152:108–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cai ZC, Qin SW (2006) Dynamics of crop yields and soil organic carbon in a long-term fertilization experiment in the Huang-Huai-Hai plain of China. Geoderma 136:708–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cai ZC, Sawamoto T, Li CS, Kang GD, Boonjawat J, Mosier A, Wassmann R, Tsuruta H (2003) Field validation of the DNDC model for greenhouse gas emissions in East Asian cropping systems. Global Biogeochem Cycle 17(4) doi: 10.1029/2003GB002046Google Scholar
  6. Cao MK, Woodward FI (1998) Dynamic responses of terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycling to global climate change. Nat 393:249–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Challinor AJ, Wheeler TR (2008) Crop yield reduction in the tropics under climate change: processes and uncertainties. Agric Forest Meteorol 148:343–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Challinor AJ, Wheeler TR, Craufurd PQ, Slingo JM (2005) Simulation of the impact of high temperature stress on annual crop yields. Agric Forest Meteorol 135:180–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Churkina G, Running SW (1998) Contrasting climatic controls on the estimated productivity of global terrestrial biomes. Ecosystems 1:206–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cramer WP, Solomon AM (1993) Climatic classification and future global redistribution of agricultural land. Clim Res 3:97–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dalias P, Anderson JM, Bottner P, Coũteaux MM (2001) Long-term effects of temperature on carbon mineralization processes. Soil Biol Biochem 33:1049–1057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dang TH, Gao CQ, Peng L, Li YS (2003) Long-term rotation and fertilizer experiments in Changwu rainfed highland. Res Soil Water Conserv 10(1):61–64 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  13. Darwish OH, Persaud N, Martens DC (1995) Effect of long-term application of animal manure on physical properties of three soils. Plant Soil 176:289–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eckersten H, Blombäck K, Kätterer T, Nyman P (2001) Modelling C, N, water and heat dynamics in winter wheat under climate change in southern Sweden. Agric Ecosyst Environ 86:221–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Falloon P, Smith P (2002) Simulating SOC changes in long-term experiments with RothC and CENTURY: model evaluation for a regional scale application. Soil Use Manag 18:101–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Farahbakhshazad N, Dinnes DL, Li CS, Jaynes DB, Salas W (2008) Modeling biogeochemical impacts of alternative management practices for a row-crop field in Iowa. Agric Ecosyst Environ 123(1):30–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Follett RF (2001) Soil management concepts and carbon sequestration in cropland soils. Soil Tillage Res 61:77–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Frolking SE, Mosier AR, Ojima DS, Li CS, Parton WJ, Potter CS, Priesack E, Stenger R, Haberbosch R, Stenger C, Haberbosch C, Dörsch P, Flessa H, Smith KA (1998) Comparison of N2O emissions from soils at three temperate agricultural sites: simulations of year-round measurements by four models. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 52:77–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Giardina CP, Ryan MG (2000) Evidence that decomposition rates of organic carbon in mineral soil do not vary with temperature. Nat 404:858–861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Giltrap DL, Li CS, Saggar S (2010) DNDC: a process-based model of greenhouse gas fluxes from agricultural soils. Agric Ecosyst Environ 136:292–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gordon C, Cooper C, Seinor CA, Banks H, Gregory JM, Johns TG, Mitchell JFB, Wood RA (2000) The simulation of SST, Seas ice extents and ocean heat transports in a version of the Hadley Center coupled model without flux adjustment. Clim Dynam 16:147–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Govi M, Francioso O, Ciavatta C, Sequi P (1992) Influence of long-term residue and fertilizer applications on soil humic substances: a study by electro focusing. Soil Sci 154(1):8–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grace PR, Colunga-Garcia M, Gage SH, Robertson GP, Safir GR (2006) The potential impact of agricultural management and climate change on soil organic carbon of the north central region of the United States. Ecosyst 9:816–827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gupta RK, Rao LLN (1994) Potential of wastelands for sequestering carbon by afforestation. Curr Sci 66:378–380Google Scholar
  25. Han J, Jia ZK, Wu W, Li CS, Han QF, Zhang J (2014) Modeling impacts of flim mulching on rainfed crop yield in Northern China with DNDC. Field Crop Res 155:202–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Holland EA, Neff JC, Townsend AR, McKeown B (2000) Uncertainties in the temperature sensitivity of decomposition in tropical and subtropical ecosystems: implications for models. Global Biogeochem Cycles 14:1137–1151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hussain SS, Mudasser M (2007) Prospects for wheat production under changing climate in mountain areas of Pakistan - an econometric analysis. Agric Syst 94:494–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ines AVM, Hansen JW (2006) Bias correction of daily GCM rainfall for crop simulation studies. Agric For Meteorol 138:44–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. IPCC (2000) Special report on emissions scenarios. In: Nakićenović N, Alcamo J, Davis G, de Vries B, Fenhann J, Gaffin S, Gregory K, Grübler A, Yong JT, Kram T, La Rovere EL, Michaelis L, Mori S, Morita T, Pepper W, Pitcher H, Price L, Riahi K, Roehrl A, Rogner HH, Sankovski A, Schlesinger M, Shukla P, Smith S, Swart R, van Rooijen S, Victor N, Dadi Z (eds) A special report of working group III of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  30. IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Marquis M, Averyt K, Tignor MMB, Miller HL, Chen Z (eds) Working Group I contribution to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  31. IPCC (2013) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner G, Tignor MMB, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds) Working Group I contribution to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  32. IUSS Working Group WRB (2006) World reference base for soil resources 2006. World Soil Resources Reports, 103. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  33. Izaurralde RC, Rosenberg NJ, Brown RA, Thomson AM (2003) Integrated assessment of Hadley Center (HadCM2) climate-change impacts on agricultural productivity and irrigation water supply in the conterminous United States Part II. Regional agricultural production in 2030 and 2095. Agric For Meteorol 117:97–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jamieson PD, Porter JR, Wilson DR (1991) A test of the computer simulation model ARC-WHEAT1 on wheat crops grown in New Zealand. Field Crop Res 27:337–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jenkinson DS, Fox RH, Rayner JH (1985) Interactions between fertilizer nitrogen and soil nitrogen – the so-called ‘priming’ effect. J Soil Sci 36(3):425–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Johnston AE (1986) Soil organic matter, effects on soils and crops. Soil Use Manag 2:97–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Johnston AE (1994) The Rothamsted classical experiments. In: Leigh RA, Johnston AE (eds) Long-term experiments in agricultural and ecological sciences. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 9–37Google Scholar
  38. Kanchikerimath M, Singh D (2001) Soil organic matter and biological properties after 26 years of maize–wheat–cowpea cropping as affected by manure and fertilization in a Cambisol in semiarid region of India. Agric Ecosyst Environ 86:155–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kern JS, Johnson MG (1993) Conservation tillage impacts on national soil and atmospheric carbon levels. Soil Sci Soc Am J 57:200–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kesik M, Ambus P, Bartitz R, Brüggemann N, Butterbach-Bahl K, Damm M, Duyze J, Horváth L, Kiese R, Kitzler B, Leip A, Li CS, Pihlatie M, Pilegaard K, Seufert S, Simpson D, Skiba U, Smiatek G, Vesala T, Zechmeister-Boltenstern S (2005) Inventories of N2O and NO emissions from European forest soils. Biogeosci 2:353–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Khaleel R, Reddy KR, Overcash MR (1981) Changes in soil physical properties due to organic waste application: a review. J Environ Qual 10:133–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Khan S, Hanjra MA, Mu J (2009) Water management and crop production for food security in China: a review. Agric Water Manag 96:349–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. King AW, Post WM, Wullschleger SD (1997) The potential response of terrestrial carbon storage to changes in climate and atmospheric CO2. Clim Chang 35:199–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kotto-Same J, Woomer PL, Appolinaire M, Louis Z (1997) Carbon dynamics in slash-and-burn agriculture and land use alternatives of the humid forest zone in Cameroon. Agric Ecosyst Environ 65:245–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Li CS (2000) Modeling trace gas emissions from agricultural ecosystems. Nutr Cycl Agroecoys 58:259–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Li CS (2007) Quantifying soil organic carbon sequestration potential with modeling approach. In: Tang HJ, Van Ranst E, Qiu JJ (eds) Simulation of soil organic carbon and changes in agricultural cropland in china and its impact on food security. China Meteorological Press, Beijing, pp 1–14Google Scholar
  47. Li CS, Frolking S, Frolking TA (1992a) A model of nitrous oxide evolution from soil driven by rainfall events: 1. Model structure and sensitivity. J Geophys Res 97:9759–9776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Li CS, Frolking S, Frolking TA (1992b) A model of nitrous oxide evolution from soil driven by rainfall events: 2. Model applications. J Geophys Res 97:9777–9783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Li CS, Frolking S, Harriss R (1994) Modeling carbon biogeochemistry in agricultural soils. Global Biogeochem Cyles 8(3):237–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Li CS, Frolking S, Croker GJ, Grace PR, Klír J, Körchens M, Poulton PR (1997) Simulating trends in soil organic carbon in long-term experiments using the DNDC model. Geoderma 81:45–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Li CS, Aber J, Stange F, Butterbach-Bahl K, Papen H (2000) A process-oriented model of N2O and NO emissions from forest soils: 1. Model development. J Geophys Res 105:4369–4384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Li CS, Cui JB, Sun G, Trettin C (2004) Modeling impacts of management on carbon sequestration and trace gas emissions in forested wetland ecosystems. Environ Manag 33:176–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Li H, Qiu JJ, Wang LG, Tang HJ, Li CS, van Ranst E (2010) Modelling impacts of alternative farming management practices on greenhouse gas emissions from a winter wheat-maize rotation system in China. Agric Ecosyst Environ 135:24–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Liang B, Yang XY, He XH, Murphy DV, Zhou JB (2012) Long-term combined application of manure and NPK fertilizers influenced nitrogen retention and stabilization of organic C in Loess soil. Plant Soil 353:249–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Loague K, Green RE (1991) Statistical and graphical methods for evaluating solute transport models: overview and application. J Contam Hydrol 7:51–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lu F, Wang X, Han B, Ouyang Z, Duan X, Zheng H, Miao H (2009) Soil carbon sequestrations by nitrogen fertilizer application, straw return and no-tillage in China’s cropland. Global Chang Biol 15:281–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lugato EE, Zuliani M, Alberti G, Vedove GD, Gioli B, Miglietta F, Peressotti A (2010) Application of DNDC biogeochemistry model to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from Italian agricultural areas at high spatial resolution. Agric Ecosyst Environ 139:546–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Luo QY, Bellotti W, Williams M, Bryan B (2005) Potential impact of climate change on wheat yield in South Australia. Agric For Meteorol 132:273–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mall RK, Lal M, Bhatia VS, Rahore LS, Singh R (2004) Mitigating climate change impact on soybean productivity in India: a simulation study. Agric For Meteorol 121:113–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Miehle P, Livesley SJ, Li CS, Feikema PM, Admas MA, Arndt SK (2006) Quantifying uncertainty from large-scale model predictions of forest carbon dynamics. Global Chang Biol 12:1421–1434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mitchell JFB, Johns TC, Gregory JM, Tett SFB (1995) Climate response to increasing levels of greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols. Nat 376:501–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mosier AR (1998) Soil processes and global change. Biol Fert Soils 27:221–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nash JE, Sutcliffe JV (1970) River flow forecasting through conceptual models part I – a discussion of principles. J Hydrol 10:282–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pingali P (2007) Westernization of Asian diets and the transformation of food systems: implications for research and policy. Food Policy 32:281–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Powlson DS, Smith P, Coleman K, Smith JU, Glendining MJ, Körschens M, Franko U (1998) A European network of long-term sites for studies on soil organic matter. Soil Till Res 47:263–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Prentice KC, Fung IY (1990) The sensitivity of terrestrial carbon storage to climate change. Nat 346:48–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Prudhomme C, Wilby RL, Crooks S, Kay AL, Reynard NS (2010) Scenario-neutral approach to climate change impact studies: application to flood risk. J Hydrol 390:198–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Qin SW, Gu YC, Zhu ZL (1998) A preliminary report on long-term stationary experiment on fertility evolution of fluvo-aquic soil and the effect of fertilization. Acta Pedol Sin 35(3):367–375 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  69. Qin XG, Li CS, Cai BG (2001) The sensitivity simulation of climate impact on C pools of loess. Quat Sci 21(2):153–161 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  70. Qiu JJ, Wang LG, Tang HJ, Li H, Li CS (2005) Studies on the situation of soil organic carbon storage in croplands in northeast of China. Agric Sci China 4(8):594–600Google Scholar
  71. Rasmussen PE, Collins HP (1991) Long-term impacts of tillage, fertilizer, and crop residue on soil organic matter in temperate semiarid region. Adv Agron 45:93–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Reddy VR, Pachepsky YA (2000) Predicting crop yields under climate change conditions from monthly GCM weather projections. Environ Model Softw 15:79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Semenov MA, Brooks RJ (1999) Spatial interpolation of the LARS-WG stochastic weather generator in Great Britain. Clim Res 11:137–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Semenov MA, Stratonovitch P (2010) Use of multi-model ensembles from global climate models for assessment of climate change impacts. Clim Res 41:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Shen J, Li R, Zhang F, Fan J, Tang C, Rengel Z (2004) Crop yields, soil fertility and phosphorus fractions in response to long-term fertilization under the rice monoculture system on a calcareous soil. Field Crops Res 86:225–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Smith TM, Leemans R, Shugart HH (1992) Sensitivity of terrestrial carbon storage to CO2 induced climate change: comparison of four scenarios based on general circulation models. Clim Chang 21:367–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Smith P, Smith JU, Powlson DS, McGill WB, Arah JRM, Chertov OG, Coleman K, Franko U, Frolking S, Jenkinson DS, Jenssen LS, Kelly RH, Klein-Gunnewiek H, Komarov AS, Li CS, Molina JAE, Mueller T, Parton WJ, Thomley JHM, Whitmore AP (1997) A comparison of the performance of nine soil organic matter models using datasets from seven long-term experiments. Geoderma 81:153–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Smith P, Powlson DS, Smith JU, Falloon P, Coleman K (2000a) Meeting Europe’s climate change commitments: quantitative estimation of the potential for carbon mitigation by agriculture. Global Chang Biol 6:525–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Smith P, Powlson DS, Smith JU, Falloon P, Coleman K (2000b) Meeting the UK’s climate change commitments options for carbon mitigation on agricultural land. Soil Use Manag 16:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Smith WN, Grant BB, Qian DB, Hutchinson J, Gameda S (2009) Potential impact of climate change on carbon in agricultural soils in Canada 2000–2009. Clim Chang 93:319–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Smith WN, Grant BB, Campbell CA, McConkey BG, Desjardins RL, Kröbel R, Malhi SS (2012) Crop residue removal effects on soil carbon: measured and inter-model comparisons. Agric Ecosyst Environ 161:27–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. State Council Information Office (1996) The white paper on food problem of China. People’s daily online. http://www.people.com.cn/GB/channel1/10/20000908/224927.html (in Chinese)
  83. Tang HJ, Qiu JJ, van Ranst E, Li CS (2006) Estimations of soil organic carbon storage in cropland of China based on DNDC model. Geoderma 134:200–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tao FL, Hayashi Y, Zhang Z, Sakamoto T, Yokozawa M (2008) Global warming, rice production, and water use in China: developing a probabilistic assessment. Agric For Meteorol 148:94–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wan Y, Lin E, Xiong W, Li Y, Guo L (2011) Modeling the impact of climate change on soil organic carbon stock in upland soils in the 21st century in China. Agric Ecosyst Environ 141:23–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wang ZH, Zhang Y, Liu XJ, Tong YA, Qiao L, Lei XY (2008) Dry and wet nitrogen deposition in agricultural soils in the Loess area. Acta Ecol Sin 28(7):3295–3301 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  87. Wardle DA, Bardgett RD, Kilronmos JN, Setälä H, Van Der Putten WH, Wall DH (2004) Ecological linkages between aboveground and belowground biota. Sci 304:1629–1633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wilby RL, Hay LE, Leavesley GH (1999) A comparison of downscaled and raw GCM output: implications for climate change scenarios in the San Juan River basin, Colorado. J Hydrol 225:67–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Willmott CJ, Ackleson SG, Davis RE, Feddema JJ, Klink KM, Legates DR, O’Donnell J, Rowe CM (1985) Statistics for the evaluation and comparison of models. J Geophys Res 90(C5):8995–9005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Yang XY, Sun BH, Gu QZ, Li SX, Zhang SL (2009) The effects of long term fertilization on soil phosphorus status in manural loessial soil. Plant Nutr Fert Sci 15(4):837–842 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  91. Yang XY, Li PR, Zhang SL, Sun BH, Chen XP (2011) Long-term-fertilization effects on soil organic carbon, physical properties, and wheat yield of a loess soil. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 174:775–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zhang L, Shen SM, Yu WT (2002a) A long-term field trial on fertilization and on use of recycled nutrients in farming systems IV. Soil fertility changes. Chin J Appl Ecol 13(11):1413–1416 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  93. Zhang Y, Li CS, Zhou XJ, Moore B (2002b) A simulation model linking crop growth and soil biogeochemistry for sustainable agriculture. Ecol Model 151:75–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Zhang F, Li CS, Wang Z, Wu H (2006) Modeling impacts of management alternatives on soil carbon storage of farmland in Northwest China. Biogeosci 3:451–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess PlateauNorthwest A&F UniversityYanglingChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and the Agri-environment in Northwest China, Ministry of AgricultureNorthwest A&F UniversityYanglingChina
  3. 3.National Engineering Research Center for Water Saving Irrigation at YanglingYanglingChina

Personalised recommendations