Assessment of climate change impacts on soil organic carbon and crop yield based on long-term fertilization applications in Loess Plateau, China
- 943 Downloads
Background and Aims
Climate change may significantly impact crop yields and soil. In this study the DNDC model, together with climatic outputs from Hadley Centre’s general circulation model (HadCM3), was used to investigate the influence of projected climate change and management practices on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and crop yield of the Chinese Loess Plateau. The results identify management practices with the greatest potential to mitigate climate change and to increase SOC in this area.
Field experiments on winter-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and summer maize (Zea mays L.) rotation included a control and four types of fertilization treatments: T1 (control), T2 (inorganic fertilizer), T3 (NPK inorganic fertilization combined with wheat or maize residue return), T4 (NPK inorganic fertilization combined with low amount of manure) and T5 (NPK inorganic fertilization combined with high amount of manure). DNDC model was calibrated using the field data from 1991 to 2000 and validated from 2001 to 2010. Furthermore, a baseline climate and three future climate scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) were considered.
DNDC model effectively simulated the SOC and crop yields. The findings showed that in 1991–2010, T1 maintained its initial SOC level but reduced crop yields, while T2 promoted crop production with less effect on soil carbon storage. However, T3, T4 and T5 enhanced both crop yield and soil carbon, and the best results were observed under T5. The investigated climate scenarios substantially affect SOC content and crop yields. In terms of SOC content, B1 had great effects on T1, T4 and T5, while A1B on T2 and T3. Considering crop yields, in all treatments, the trends are B1 > A1B > A2 for winter-wheat and A2 > A1B > B1 for summer maize, respectively.
The impacts of climate changes on SOC dynamics and crop yields were different depending on the management applied. Thus, the adoption of certain management practices in the Chinese Loess Plateau agroecosystems could be critical in maximizing SOC sequestration and reducing CO2 in the atmosphere. Reasonably low temperature and high precipitation can enhance winter-wheat yields, while maize yields need medium temperature and precipitation. We recommended the combined application of inorganic and organic fertilizers to achieve a balance between food security and soil carbon sequestration objectives.
KeywordsClimate change Crop yields DNDC model Fertilization Soil organic carbon
The authors are indebted to “Chinese National Loess Fertility and Fertilizer Effects Long-term Monitoring Base” for providing the experimental data useful to the model validation. This work was jointly supported by the National 863 Research Program (2011BAD29B09), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41001130), the NWAFU Research Project (2013RWYB20), and the 111 Project (B12007). Thanks to all software developers, especially to Prof. Changsheng Li for the DNDC support and suggestion. We are very appreciated with the pertinent comments provided by Dr. Martin. Parkes, the two anonymous reviewers and editors which greatly improved the manuscript.
- Acharya CL, Bisnoi SK, Yaduvanshi HS (1988) Effect of long-term application of fertilizers and organic and inorganic amendments under continuous cropping on soil physical and chemical properties in an Alfisol. Indian J Agric Sci 58:509–516Google Scholar
- Cai ZC, Sawamoto T, Li CS, Kang GD, Boonjawat J, Mosier A, Wassmann R, Tsuruta H (2003) Field validation of the DNDC model for greenhouse gas emissions in East Asian cropping systems. Global Biogeochem Cycle 17(4) doi: 10.1029/2003GB002046Google Scholar
- Dang TH, Gao CQ, Peng L, Li YS (2003) Long-term rotation and fertilizer experiments in Changwu rainfed highland. Res Soil Water Conserv 10(1):61–64 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
- Frolking SE, Mosier AR, Ojima DS, Li CS, Parton WJ, Potter CS, Priesack E, Stenger R, Haberbosch R, Stenger C, Haberbosch C, Dörsch P, Flessa H, Smith KA (1998) Comparison of N2O emissions from soils at three temperate agricultural sites: simulations of year-round measurements by four models. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 52:77–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gupta RK, Rao LLN (1994) Potential of wastelands for sequestering carbon by afforestation. Curr Sci 66:378–380Google Scholar
- IPCC (2000) Special report on emissions scenarios. In: Nakićenović N, Alcamo J, Davis G, de Vries B, Fenhann J, Gaffin S, Gregory K, Grübler A, Yong JT, Kram T, La Rovere EL, Michaelis L, Mori S, Morita T, Pepper W, Pitcher H, Price L, Riahi K, Roehrl A, Rogner HH, Sankovski A, Schlesinger M, Shukla P, Smith S, Swart R, van Rooijen S, Victor N, Dadi Z (eds) A special report of working group III of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Marquis M, Averyt K, Tignor MMB, Miller HL, Chen Z (eds) Working Group I contribution to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- IPCC (2013) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner G, Tignor MMB, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds) Working Group I contribution to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- IUSS Working Group WRB (2006) World reference base for soil resources 2006. World Soil Resources Reports, 103. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
- Izaurralde RC, Rosenberg NJ, Brown RA, Thomson AM (2003) Integrated assessment of Hadley Center (HadCM2) climate-change impacts on agricultural productivity and irrigation water supply in the conterminous United States Part II. Regional agricultural production in 2030 and 2095. Agric For Meteorol 117:97–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Johnston AE (1994) The Rothamsted classical experiments. In: Leigh RA, Johnston AE (eds) Long-term experiments in agricultural and ecological sciences. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 9–37Google Scholar
- Kesik M, Ambus P, Bartitz R, Brüggemann N, Butterbach-Bahl K, Damm M, Duyze J, Horváth L, Kiese R, Kitzler B, Leip A, Li CS, Pihlatie M, Pilegaard K, Seufert S, Simpson D, Skiba U, Smiatek G, Vesala T, Zechmeister-Boltenstern S (2005) Inventories of N2O and NO emissions from European forest soils. Biogeosci 2:353–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Li CS (2007) Quantifying soil organic carbon sequestration potential with modeling approach. In: Tang HJ, Van Ranst E, Qiu JJ (eds) Simulation of soil organic carbon and changes in agricultural cropland in china and its impact on food security. China Meteorological Press, Beijing, pp 1–14Google Scholar
- Qin SW, Gu YC, Zhu ZL (1998) A preliminary report on long-term stationary experiment on fertility evolution of fluvo-aquic soil and the effect of fertilization. Acta Pedol Sin 35(3):367–375 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
- Qin XG, Li CS, Cai BG (2001) The sensitivity simulation of climate impact on C pools of loess. Quat Sci 21(2):153–161 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
- Qiu JJ, Wang LG, Tang HJ, Li H, Li CS (2005) Studies on the situation of soil organic carbon storage in croplands in northeast of China. Agric Sci China 4(8):594–600Google Scholar
- Smith P, Smith JU, Powlson DS, McGill WB, Arah JRM, Chertov OG, Coleman K, Franko U, Frolking S, Jenkinson DS, Jenssen LS, Kelly RH, Klein-Gunnewiek H, Komarov AS, Li CS, Molina JAE, Mueller T, Parton WJ, Thomley JHM, Whitmore AP (1997) A comparison of the performance of nine soil organic matter models using datasets from seven long-term experiments. Geoderma 81:153–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- State Council Information Office (1996) The white paper on food problem of China. People’s daily online. http://www.people.com.cn/GB/channel1/10/20000908/224927.html (in Chinese)
- Wang ZH, Zhang Y, Liu XJ, Tong YA, Qiao L, Lei XY (2008) Dry and wet nitrogen deposition in agricultural soils in the Loess area. Acta Ecol Sin 28(7):3295–3301 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
- Yang XY, Sun BH, Gu QZ, Li SX, Zhang SL (2009) The effects of long term fertilization on soil phosphorus status in manural loessial soil. Plant Nutr Fert Sci 15(4):837–842 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
- Zhang L, Shen SM, Yu WT (2002a) A long-term field trial on fertilization and on use of recycled nutrients in farming systems IV. Soil fertility changes. Chin J Appl Ecol 13(11):1413–1416 (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar