Aluminum toxicity to tropical montane forest tree seedlings in southern Ecuador:
We determined the reasons why in nutrient solution increasing Al concentrations >300 μM inhibited shoot biomass production of Cedrela odorata L., Heliocarpus americanus L., and Tabebuia chrysantha (Jacq.) G. Nicholson while 300 μM Al stimulated root biomass production of Tabebuia chrysantha.
Nutrient concentrations in plant tissue after a hydroponic growth experiment were determined.
Increasing Al concentrations significantly decreased Mg concentrations in leaves. Phosphorus concentrations in roots of C. odorata and T. chrysantha were significantly highest in the treatment with 300 μM Al and correlated significantly with root biomass.
Shoot biomass production was likely inhibited by reduced Mg uptake, impairing photosynthesis. The stimulation of root growth at low Al concentrations can be possibly attributed to improved P uptake.
KeywordsAluminum toxicity Tropical forest tree seedlings Nutrient deficiency Growth stimulation by phosphorus
- Amberger A (1996) Pflanzenernährung, 4th edn. Ulmer, Stuttgart, 319 pGoogle Scholar
- Bruijnzeel LA (2001) Hydrology of tropical montane cloud forests: A reassessment. Water Resour Res 1:1–18Google Scholar
- Hafkenscheid RL (2000) Hydrology and biogeochemistry of tropical montane rain forests of contrasting stature in the Blue Mountains, Jamaica. Print Partners Ipskamp, Enschede, The Netherlands, pp 303Google Scholar
- Hoagland D, Arnon D (1950) The water-culture method for growing plants without soil. University of California, Berkeley, pp 32Google Scholar
- Keltjens WG (1995) Magnesium uptake by Al-stressed maize plants with special emphasis on cation interactions at root exchange sites. In: Date R, Grundon N, Rayment G, Probert M (eds) Plant-soil interactions at low pH: Principles and management, Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences, Vol 64, Springer Netherlands, pp 307–312, doi:10.1007/978-94-011-0221-642
- Liao H, Wan H, Shaff J, Wang X, Yan X, Kochian LV (2006) Phosphorus and aluminum interactions in soybean in relation to aluminum tolerance. Exudation of specific organic acids from different regions of the intact root system. Plant Physiol 141(2):674–684. doi:10.1104/pp.105.076497 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lilienfein J, Wilcke W, Zimmermann R, Gerstberger P, Araújo GM, Zech W (2001) Nutrient storage in soil and biomass of native Brazilian Cerrado. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 164(5):487–495. doi:10.1002/1522-2624(200110)164:5<487::AID-JPLN487>3.0.CO;2-I CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Marschner P (2012) Marschner’s mineral nutrition of higher plants, 3rd edn. Academic Press, London, p 649Google Scholar
- Mosandl R, Günter S (2008) Sustainable management of tropical mountain forests in Ecuador, vol 2. University of Göttingen, Germany, pp 177–193Google Scholar
- Core Team R (2013) R: A language and environment for statistical computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, URL http://www.R-project.org/
- Rehmus A, Bigalke M, Valarezo C, Mora Castillo J, Wilcke W (2014) Aluminum toxicity to tropical montane forest tree seedlings in southern Ecuador: Response of biomass and plant morphology to elevated Al concentrations. Plant Soil 1–15. doi:10.1007/s11104-014-2110-0
- Wilcke W, Leimer S, Peters T, Emck RR P, Trachte K, Valarezo C, Bendix J (2013) The nitrogen cycle of tropical montane forest in Ecuador turns inorganic under environmental change. Glob Biogeochem Cycle. doi:10.1002/2012GB004471
- Zhang XB, Liu P, Yang YS, Xu GD (2007) Effect of Al in soil on photosynthesis and related morphological and physiological characteristics of two soybean genotypes. Bot Stud 48:435–444Google Scholar