Tree root architecture: new insights from a comprehensive study on dikes
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This study aimed at disentangling the respective influence of species, environment, root size and root type in tree root architecture.
The root system of 106 adult trees from ten species was carefully extracted from French dikes. Root length and proximal diameter, length and diameter of root segments and branch insertion diameter were measured. Root branching and tapering rates, segment taper, classical (P) and new architectural parameters related to branching patterns were computed.
Two contrasting root types called “running” (R) and “short” (S), were identified from growth and architectural parameters. Compared to S roots, R roots were longer for an equivalent proximal diameter and singled out with lower tapering rate, branching rate and segment taper and with smaller branches. Their main axis lost less in diameter at branching point for branches of the same size. Tree species had little influence on these architectural parameters. The effect of soil material (coarse vs fine) was significant mainly on root size, on branching rate in fine material, and only secondarily on some branching patterns for running roots and on segment taper. The new architectural parameters describe branching patterns more accurately than classical ones.
This study provides an original insight in tree root architectural analysis, proposing a new root typology and innovative parameters for the description and modeling of root architecture.
KeywordsTree root architecture Tapering rate Branching patterns Earth dike
The authors are indebted to Caroline Brunel from IMBE for her help in multivariate analyses, to Frédéric Danjon for his comments and suggestions from early stages of this study, to Peter Z. Fulé from NAU, USA, for his help in revising the manuscript and language editing, and to many colleagues, technicians and students who contributed in data collection during 12 years of difficult field campaigns and in lab work, and particularly to Willy Martin, Roland Estève, Christian Ripert, Olivier Chandioux, Gaylord Doirat, Pierre-Jean Moundy, David Fiorese, Sophie Ferrat, Sebastien Tourrette and Geoffrey Blanc. This study was funded by Irstea, Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region (PHD grant), the French National Research Agency (ANR - ERINOH project), by dike managers (EDF, CNR, AD Isère-Drac-Romanche, DDT Nièvre, SMAVD, Chambery Métropole, Conseil Général de l’Isère) who hired the technical staff and material to cut trees, extract root systems and remediate damages to studied sites and the Labex OT-Med (n° ANR-11-LABX-0061) through a PHD grant. This work is a contribution to the Labex OT-Med funded by the French Government «Investissements d’Avenir» through the A*MIDEX project (n° ANR-11-IDEX-0001-02) and to ECCOREV research Federation.
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