Development of phytotoxicity and composition of a soil treated with olive mill wastewater (OMW): an incubation study
- 496 Downloads
Background and aims
Olive mill wastewater (OMW) generated in Mediterranean countries is partly disposed of on soil. Its underlying fate mechanisms and influences on plant growth are still largely unknown. Our goal was to understand OMW organic matter (OMW-OM) degradation in soil and its phytotoxic effects. We hypothesized that OMW phytotoxicity decreased with degradation of its phenolic components.
In a 60 day incubation study, we monitored soil respiration, extractable total phenolic content (TPC) and carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) of OMW treated Israeli soil. The soil was extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and its extracts were exemplarily analyzed for four phenolic substances by LC/MS. Phytotoxicity of soil and soil extracts were tested using a Lepidium sativum seed germination bioassay.
Soil respiration was 2.5 times higher for OMW treated soil with two respiration maxima and indicated a degradation of up to 27 % of the added OMW-OM. Four phases of OMW-OM degradation were identified: (i) degradation of easily degradable OMW-OM and transformation of phenolic compounds, (ii) intermediate suppression of phytotoxicity, (iii) degradation of phytotoxic phenolic compounds and (iv) significant physical immobilization of phytotoxic compounds.
Environmental conditions during and after OMW disposal on soil ought to favor fast degradation of OMW-OM, minimizing their physical immobilization and phytotoxic effects.
KeywordOMW Phytotoxicity Carbon isotope ratio IRMS ASE TPC
This research was conducted within the trilateral project “OLIVEOIL” funded by the DFG (SCHA849/13). The authors thank all members of the researchers group for fruitful discussions. Furthermore, we thank Andreas Hirsch, Silvia Eichhöfer and Eugenia Podolskaja for their help during the measurements.
- Arapoglou D, Doula M, Kavvadias V, Iconomou D, Theocharopoulos S, Tountas P (2010) Monitoring of phenols concentration in soil of olive oil mill waste disposal site. Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on hazardous and industrial waste management: 477–479Google Scholar
- Ben Sassi A, Boularbah A, Jaouad A, Walker G, Boussaid A (2006) A comparison of olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW) from three different processes in morocco. Process Biochem 41:74–78Google Scholar
- Bogolte BT, Ehlers GAC, Braun R, Loibner AP (2007) Estimation of PAH bioavailability to lepidium sativum using sequential supercritical fluid extraction - a case study with industrial contaminated soils. Eur J Soil Biol 43:242–250. doi: 10.1016/j.ejsobi.2007.02.007
- Boukhoubza F, Ait Boughrous A, Yacoubi-Khebiza M, Jail A, Hassani L, Loukili Idrissi L, Nejmeddine A (2008) Impact of olive oil wastewater on the physicochemical and biological quality of groundwater in the haouz plain, south of marrakesh (morocco). Environ Technol 29:959–974. doi: 10.1080/09593330802131669 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Box JD (1983) Investigation of the folin-ciocalteau phenol reagent for the determination of polyphenolic substances in natural waters. Water Resour 17:511–525Google Scholar
- DIN ISO 10694 (1996) Bodenbeschaffenheit-Bestimmung von organischem Kohlenstoff und Gesamtkohlenstoff nach trockener Verbrennung (Elementaranalyse). Beuth, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- DIN ISO 11265 (1997) Bodenbeschaffenheit-Bestimmung der spezifischen elektrischen Leitfähigkeit. Beuth, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- DIN ISO 11272 (2001) Bodenbeschaffenheit–Bestimmung der Trockenrohdichte. Beuth, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- DIN ISO 11277 (1998) Bodenbeschaffenheit-Bestimmung der Partikelgrößenverteilung in Mineralböden. Verfahren mittels Siebung und Sedimentation. Beuth, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- DIN ISO 16072 (2005) Soil quality – laboratory methods for determination of microbial soil respiration. Beuth, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- DIN ISO 38404–5 (2009) Deutsche einheitsverfahren zur wasser-, abwasser- und schlammuntersuchung - physikalische und physikalisch-chemische kenngrößen (gruppe c) - teil 5: Bestimmung des ph-werts (c 5). Beuth, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- Hoorman J, Rafiq I (2010) Understanding soil microbes and nutrient recycling. fact sheet of agriculture and natural. The Ohio State University, ResourcesGoogle Scholar
- Kapellakis, IE, Tsagarakis, KP, Crowther, JC (2008) Olive oil history, production and by-product management. Rev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol. 7:1–26Google Scholar
- Martin JP, Haider K (1986) Influencs of mineral colloids on turnover rates of organic soil carbon. Soil Sci Soc Am Spec Publ 17:283–304Google Scholar
- Negi B, Dey G (2009) Comparative analysis of total phenolic content in sea buckthorn wine and other selected fruit wines. World Acad Sci Eng Technol 54:99–102Google Scholar
- Nielsen MN, Winding A (2002) Microorganisms as indicators of soil health. Ministry of the Environment, National Environmental Research Institute, RoskildeGoogle Scholar
- Reigosa MJ, Pazos-Malvido E (2007) Phytotoxic effects of 21 plant secondary metabolites on Arabidopsis thaliana germination and root growth. J. Chem. Ecol. 33: 1456–1466Google Scholar
- Saviozzi A, Levi-Minzi R, Riffaldi R (1990) Cinetica della decomposizione nel terreno del carbonio organico delle acque di vegetazione. Agrochimica 34:157–164Google Scholar
- Saviozzi A, Levi-Minz IR, Riffaldi R, Lupetti A (1991) Effetti dello spandimento di acque di vegetazione sul terreno agrario. Agrochimica 35:135–148Google Scholar
- Sparling GP (1997) Soil microbial biomass, activity and nutrient cycling as indicators of soil health. In: Doube BM, Gupta VVSR (eds) C Pankhurst. CABI Publishing Adelaide, Biological indicators of soil health, pp 97–117Google Scholar
- Wang TSC, Huang PM, Chou C-H, Chen J-H (1986) The role of soil minerals in the abiotic polymerization of phenolic compounds and formation of humic substances. In: PM Huang, M Schnitzer (eds) Interactions of soil minerals with natural organics and microbes. Soil Science Society of America251-281.Google Scholar
- Wlodarczyk T, Ksiezopolska A, Glinski J (2008) New aspect of soil respiration activity measuring. Teka Kom Ochr Kszt Środ Przyr–OL PAN 5:153–163Google Scholar
- Zhang C, Fu S (2010) Allelopathic effects of leaf litter and live roots exudates of eucalyptus species on crops. Allelopathy J 26:91–100Google Scholar