Proteome and calcium-related gene expression in Pinus massoniana needles in response to acid rain under different calcium levels
Calcium (Ca) is a crucial regulator of plant growth, development and stress responses. Acid rain (AR), a serious environmental issue worldwide, leaches away Ca from surrounding soils and affects vegetation. The objective of this study was to investigate how different Ca levels affect protein and RNA expression of calcium-related genes under AR stress.
Pinus massoniana seedlings grown at high, medium, and low Ca levels under AR stress were used for proteomics analysis. Furthermore, relative mRNA levels of eight Ca-related genes and their interaction network were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and bioinformatic analysis.
Proteomic studies identified 95 differentially expressed proteins which were classified into eight groups, including metabolic processes, photosynthesis, and cell rescue and defense, etc. Moreover, qRT-PCR results indicated that low Ca significantly increased the expression level of the investigated Ca-related genes, which can be reversed by high Ca under AR stress.
Defense system, gene transcription and translation, photosynthetic machinery, and substance and energy metabolism may play important roles in the responses of P. massoniana to AR stress. Low Ca increases the abundance of cell rescue and defense-related proteins under AR. High Ca can reduce AR damage by increasing the abundance of proteins involved in the Calvin cycle, glycolysis, TCA cycle, and nitrogen metabolism. Our results indicated a possible mechanism involving Ca in AR tolerance in plants.
KeywordsAcid rain Calcium Pinus massoniana Proteomic Soil Transcription Woody plant
- Aurisano N, Bertani A, Reggiani R (1995) Involvement of calcium and calmodulin in protein and amino acid metabolism in rice roots under anoxia. Plant Cell Physiol 36:1525–1529Google Scholar
- Knight H (1999) Calcium signaling during abiotic stress in plants. In: Kwang WJ (ed) Int Rev Cytol, vol Volume 195. Academic Press, pp 269–324. doi:10.1016/S0074-7696(08)62707-2
- Lindberg S, Kader MA, Yemelyanov V (2012) Calcium signalling in plant cells under environmental stress. In: Ahmad P, Prasad MNV (eds) Environmental adaptations and stress tolerance of plants in the era of climate change. Springer New York, pp 325–360. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-0815-4_15
- Ludwig AA, Saitoh H, Felix G, Freymark G, Miersch O, Wasternack C, Boller T, Jones JDG, Romeis T (2005) Ethylene-mediated cross-talk between calcium-dependent protein kinase and MAPK signaling controls stress responses in plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:10736–10741PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rodriguez-Serrano M, Romero-Puertas MC, Pazmino DM, Testillano PS, Risueno MC, Del Rio LA, Sandalio LM (2009) Cellular response of pea plants to cadmium toxicity: cross talk between reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and calcium. Plant Physiol 150:229–243PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar