Plant and Soil

, Volume 380, Issue 1–2, pp 285–303 | Cite as

Proteome and calcium-related gene expression in Pinus massoniana needles in response to acid rain under different calcium levels

  • Wen-Jun Hu
  • Juan Chen
  • Ting-Wu Liu
  • Qian Wu
  • Wen-Hua Wang
  • Xiang Liu
  • Zhi-Jun Shen
  • Martin Simon
  • Juan Chen
  • Fei-Hua Wu
  • Zhen-Ming Pei
  • Hai-Lei ZhengEmail author
Regular Article



Calcium (Ca) is a crucial regulator of plant growth, development and stress responses. Acid rain (AR), a serious environmental issue worldwide, leaches away Ca from surrounding soils and affects vegetation. The objective of this study was to investigate how different Ca levels affect protein and RNA expression of calcium-related genes under AR stress.


Pinus massoniana seedlings grown at high, medium, and low Ca levels under AR stress were used for proteomics analysis. Furthermore, relative mRNA levels of eight Ca-related genes and their interaction network were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and bioinformatic analysis.


Proteomic studies identified 95 differentially expressed proteins which were classified into eight groups, including metabolic processes, photosynthesis, and cell rescue and defense, etc. Moreover, qRT-PCR results indicated that low Ca significantly increased the expression level of the investigated Ca-related genes, which can be reversed by high Ca under AR stress.


Defense system, gene transcription and translation, photosynthetic machinery, and substance and energy metabolism may play important roles in the responses of P. massoniana to AR stress. Low Ca increases the abundance of cell rescue and defense-related proteins under AR. High Ca can reduce AR damage by increasing the abundance of proteins involved in the Calvin cycle, glycolysis, TCA cycle, and nitrogen metabolism. Our results indicated a possible mechanism involving Ca in AR tolerance in plants.


Acid rain Calcium Pinus massoniana Proteomic Soil Transcription Woody plant 



This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC No 30930076, 31300505, 31260057, 30770192, 30670317), the Foundation of the Chinese Ministry of Education (20070384033) and the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in Xiamen University (NCETXMU No X07115), Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation (LY13C160014, Z3110443). We are grateful to Dr. Jun-Xian He from The Chinese University of Hong Kong for critically editing the manuscript.

Supplementary material

11104_2014_2086_MOESM1_ESM.doc (34 kb)
Supplementary Table S1 (DOC 34 kb)
11104_2014_2086_MOESM2_ESM.doc (36 kb)
Supplementary Table S2 (DOC 36 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wen-Jun Hu
    • 1
  • Juan Chen
    • 1
  • Ting-Wu Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Qian Wu
    • 1
  • Wen-Hua Wang
    • 1
  • Xiang Liu
    • 1
  • Zhi-Jun Shen
    • 1
  • Martin Simon
    • 1
  • Juan Chen
    • 1
  • Fei-Hua Wu
    • 1
    • 3
  • Zhen-Ming Pei
    • 5
  • Hai-Lei Zheng
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of the Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems, Ministry of Education, College of the Environment and EcologyXiamen UniversityXiamenPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of BiologyHuaiyin Normal UniversityHuaianPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.College of Life and Environmental SciencesHangzhou Normal UniversityHangzhouChina
  4. 4.College of the Environment and EcologyXiamen UniversityXiamenPeople’s Republic of China
  5. 5.College of Life and Environmental SciencesHangzhou Normal UniversityZhejiangChina

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