The 4-phosphopantetheinyl transferase of Trichoderma virens plays a role in plant protection against Botrytis cinerea through volatile organic compound emission
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This work was conducted to examine the effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from Trichoderma virens and the 4-phosphopantetheinyl transferase 1 (TvPPT1) mutant in growth promotion and induction of defense responses of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings using a co-cultivation system in vitro.
The contribution of VOCs to plant development and immunity was assessed by comparing the effectiveness of WT and Δppt1 mutant strains of T. virens in the formation of lateral roots and protection conferred against Botrytis cinerea. VOCs released by T. virens and Δppt1 mutant were compared by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry.
Plants exposed to volatiles from WT T. virens showed 2-fold increase in fresh weight when compared to axenically-grown seedlings, which correlated with increased root branching and enhanced expression of the jasmonic acid-responsive marker pLox2:uidA as well as accumulation of jasmonic acid and hydrogen peroxide. T. virens produced a series of hydrocarbon terpenes, including the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene, (−)-β-elemene, germacrene D, τ-cadinene, δ-cadinene, α-amorphene, and τ-selinene and the monoterpenes β-myrcene, trans-β-ocimene, and cis-β-ocimene that were absent in TvPPT1 mutant.
Our results indicate that T. virens VOCs elicit both development and defense programs and that PPT1 plays an important role in biosynthesis of terpenes and plant protection against B. cinerea.
KeywordsTrichoderma Arabidopsis Root development Plant immunity Volatiles
Gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry
Nonribosomal peptide synthase
4-phosphopantetheinyl transferase 1
Reactive oxygen species
Volatile organic compounds
This work was supported by grants from the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT, México, grants no. 165738 and 177775), the Consejo de la Investigación Científica (UMSNH, México, grants no. CIC 2.24 and 2.26) and the Marcos Moshinsky Foundation. HACC is indebted to CONACYT for a doctoral fellowship.
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