Plant and Soil

, Volume 375, Issue 1–2, pp 289–301 | Cite as

A dual effect of Se on Cd toxicity: evidence from plant growth, root morphology and responses of the antioxidative systems of paddy rice

Regular Article

Abstract

Aims

It is well established that low levels of selenium (Se) are protective against low levels of cadmium (Cd) toxicity and can significantly reduce Cd uptake in plants. However, our previous study reported that the addition of Se hampered the growth of paddy rice exposed to high levels of Cd and enhanced Cd uptake. The relevant mechanisms underlying the dual effects of Se on Cd uptake and toxicity are unclear.

Methods

This study attempted to illustrate the potential mechanisms of the effect of selenite on Cd toxicity and uptake in paddy rice using hydroponic culture, mainly focusing on the changes in root morphology and the responses of antioxidative enzymes to low and high levels of Se and Cd. A root image analysis system equipped with WinRHIZO image analysis software was used to analyze the root morphology.

Results

When no Cd was added, a level of Se as low as 0.2 mg L−1 decreased the shoot malondialdehyde (MDA) content and enhanced the growth of paddy rice; however, Se levels of up to 0.8 mg L−1 inhibited the growth and increased the MDA content of shoots, demonstrating the dual effect of Se on plants. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) appeared to be activated, especially in the roots, when Se was added to solutions containing a high concentration of Cd; however, single addition of Se or Cd inhibited SOD activity. The addition of Se to a solution containing Cd stimulated only root ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity. Peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes appeared to have limited roles in detoxifying Cd when increasing amounts of Se were added. When Se was absent from the solution, Cd levels as low as 1 mg L−1 had beneficial effects on root growth but not on shoot growth; however, these beneficial effects were accompanied by a significant increase in shoot MDA content. Cd levels higher than 4 mg L−1 inhibited the growth of shoots and roots, suggesting that Cd toxicity had occurred in the paddy rice. The addition of Se to the treatments containing Cd significantly reduced the proportion of fine roots and tended to increase the proportion of coarse roots, which might explain the decreases in Cd uptake in this study and the decreases in the uptake of other minerals observed in other studies. The addition of Se could mitigate the toxicity of Cd; however, these protective effects are likely dependent on the doses of Se and Cd.

Conclusions

Several Se-mediated mechanisms for the mitigation of Cd toxicity were proposed, including (1) an increase in the proportion of coarse roots to reduce Cd uptake and (2) the activation of certain antioxidative enzymes. When 12 mg L−1 Cd was added to the solution, the addition of Se inhibited plant growth instead of mitigating the toxicity of Cd; this finding was thought to be related to the increased permeability of the root cells to Cd due to the damaged cell membranes produced by Se supplementation.

Keywords

Selenite Cadmium Antioxidative enzymes Root morphology Paddy rice 

References

  1. Aina R, Labra M, Fumagalli P, Vannini C, Marsoni M, Cucchi U, Bracale M, Sgorbati S, Citterio S (2007) Thiol-peptide level and proteomic changes in response to cadmium toxicity in Oryza sativa L. roots. Environ Exp Bot 59:381–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bradford MM (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein–dye binding. Anal Biochem 72:248–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cartes P, Gianfreda L, Mora ML (2005) Uptake of selenium and its antioxidant activity in ryegrass when applied as selenate and selenite forms. Plant Soil 276:359–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cartes P, Jara AA, Pinilla L, Rosas A, Mora ML (2010) Selenium improves the antioxidant ability against aluminium-induced oxidative stress in ryegrass roots. Ann Appl Biol 156:297–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cosio C, Vollenweider P, Keller C (2006) Localization and effects of cadmium in leaves of a cadmium-tolerant willow (Salix viminalis L.): I. Macrolocalization and phytotoxic effects of cadmium. Environ Exp Bot 58:64–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Daud MK, Sun YQ, Dawood M, Hayat Y, Variath MT, Wu YX, Raziuddin, Mishkat U, Salahuddin, Najeeb U, Zhu SJ (2009) Cadmium-induced functional and ultrastructural alterations in roots of two transgenic cotton cultivars. J Hazard Mater 161:463–473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. di Toppi LS, Gabbrielli R (1999) Response to cadmium in higher plants. Environ Exp Bot 41:105–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Djanaguiraman M, Devi DD, Shanker AK, Sheeba JA, Bangarusamy U (2005) Selenium-an antioxidative protectant in soybean during senescence. Plant Soil 272:77–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Feng RW, Wei CY (2012) Antioxidative mechanisms on selenium accumulation in Pteris vittata L., a potential selenium phytoremediation plant. Plant Soil Environ 58:105–110Google Scholar
  10. Feng RW, Wei CY, Tu SX (2013a) The roles of selenium in protecting plants against abiotic stresses. Environ Exp Bot 87:58–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Feng RW, Wei CY, Tu SX, Ding YZ, Song ZG (2013b) A dual role of Se on Cd toxicity: evidences from the uptake of Cd and some essential elements and the growth responses in paddy rice. Biol Trace Elem Res 151:113–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Feng RW, Wei CY, Tu SX, Liu ZQ (2013c) Interactive effects of selenium and antimony on the uptake of selenium, antimony and essential elements in paddy-rice. Plant Soil 365:375–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Filek M, Keskinen R, Hartikainen H, Szarejko I, Janiak A, Miszalski Z, Golda A (2008) The protective role of selenium in rape seedlings subjected to cadmium stress. J Plant Physiol 165:833–844PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Filek M, Zembala M, Hartikainen H, Miszalski Z, Kornaś A, Wietecka-Posłuszny R, Walas P (2009) Changes in wheat plastid membrane properties induced by cadmium and selenium in presence/absence of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Plant Cell Tissue Organ 96:19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Filek M, Gzyl-Malcher B, Zembala M, Bednarska E, Laggner P, Kriechbaum M (2010) Effect of selenium on characteristics of rape chloroplasts modified by cadmium. J Plant Physiol 167:28–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hartikainen H, Xue TL, Piironen V (2000) Selenium as an anti-oxidant and pro-oxidant in ryegrass. Plant Soil 225:193–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jia Y, Tang SR, Ju XH, Shu LN, Tu SX, Feng RW, Giusti L (2011) Effects of elevated CO2 levels on root morphological traits and Cd uptakes of two Lolium species under Cd stress. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 12:313–325PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kumar M, Bijo AJ, Baghel RS, Reddy CRK, Jha B (2012) Selenium and spermine alleviate cadmium induced toxicity in the red seaweed Gracilaria dura by regulating antioxidants and DNA methylation. Plant Physiol Biochem 51:129–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li TQ, Di ZZ, Han X, Yang XE (2012) Elevated CO2 improves root growth and cadmium accumulation in the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii. Plant Soil 1–2:325–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Marschner P (2012) Mineral nutrition of higher plants, 3rd ed. Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  21. Mora ML, Pinilla L, Rosas A, Cartes P (2008) Selenium uptake and its influence on the antioxidative system of white clover as affected by lime and phosphorus fertilization. Plant Soil 303:139–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nedjimi B, Daoud Y (2009) Cadmium accumulation in Atriplex halimus subsp. schweinfurthii and its influence on growth, proline, root hydraulic conductivity and nutrient uptake. Flora 204:316–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nowak J, Kaklewski K, Ligocki M (2004) Influence of selenium on oxidoreductive enzymes activity in soil and in plants. Soil Biol Biochem 36:1553–1558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pukacka S, Ratajczak E, Kalemba E (2011) The protective role of selenium in recalcitrant Acer saccharium L. seeds subjected to desiccation. J Plant Physiol 168:220–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Walley JW, Huerta AJ (2010) Exposure to environmentally relevant levels of cadmium primarily impacts transpiration in field-grown soybean. J Plant Nutr 33:1519–1530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wang XL, Sato T, Xing BS, Tao S (2005) Health risks of heavy metals to the general public in Tianjin, China via consumption of vegetables and fish. Sci Total Environ 350:28–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wei CY, Sun X, Wang C, Wang WY (2006) Factors influencing arsenic accumulation by Pteris vittata: a comparative field study at two sites. Environ Pollut 141:488–493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Xu J, Yang FM, Chen LC, Hu Y, Hu QH (2003) Effect of selenium on increasing the antioxidant activity of tea leaves harvested during the early spring tea producing season. J Agric Food Chem 51:1081–1084PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Xue TL, Hartikainen H (2008) Association of antioxidative enzymes with the synergistic effect of selenium and UV irradiation in enhancing plant growth. Agric Food Sci 9:177–186Google Scholar
  30. Xue TL, Hartikainen H, Piironen V (2001) Antioxidative and growth-promoting effect of selenium on senescing lettuce. Plant Soil 237:55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Yang Y, Zhang FS, Li HF, Jiang RF (2009) Accumulation of cadmium in the edible parts of six vegetable species grown in Cd-contaminated soils. J Environ Manag 90:1117–1122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Yao XQ, Chu JZ, Wang GY (2009) Effects of selenium on wheat seedlings under drought stress. Biol Trace Elem Res 130:283–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Yao X, Chu J, He X, Ba C (2011) Protective role of selenium in wheat seedlings subjected to enhanced UV-B radiation. Russ J Plant Physiol 58:283–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ministry of AgricultureAgro-Environmental Protection InstituteTianjinChina

Personalised recommendations