Advertisement

Plant and Soil

, Volume 374, Issue 1–2, pp 815–828 | Cite as

Root porosity, radial oxygen loss and iron plaque on roots of wetland plants in relation to zinc tolerance and accumulation

  • Junxing Yang
  • Nora Fung-Yee Tam
  • Zhihong Ye
Regular Article

Abstract

Background and aims

Wetland plants have been widely used in constructed wetlands for the clean-up of metal-contaminated waters. This study investigated the relationship between rate of radial oxygen loss (ROL), root porosity, Zn uptake and tolerance, Fe plaque formation in wetland plants.

Methods

A hydroponic experiment and a pot trial with Zn-contaminated soil were conducted to apply different Zn level treatments to various emergent wetland plants.

Results

Significant differences were found between plants in their root porosities, rates of ROL, Zn uptake and Zn tolerance indices in the hydroponic experiment, and concentrations of Fe and Mn on roots and in the rhizosphere in the pot trial. There were significant positive correlations between root porosities, ROL rates, Zn tolerance, Zn, Fe and Mn concentrations on roots and in the rhizosphere. Wetland plants with higher root porosities and ROL tended to have more Fe plaque, higher Zn concentrations on roots and in their rhizospheres, and were more tolerant of Zn toxicity.

Conclusions

Our results suggest that ROL and root porosity play very important roles in Fe plaque formation, Zn uptake and tolerance, and are useful criteria for selecting wetland plants for the phytoremediation of Zn-contaminated waters and soils/sediments.

Keywords

Aerenchyma Heavy metal Iron plaque Radial oxygen loss (ROL) Wetland plant Rhizosphere 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We sincerely thank Mr. HY Huang (SYSU) and Ms HY Dong (SYSU) for their technical help and Prof AJM Baker (University of Melbourne, Australia) for assisting with the review of this paper. This research was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 30570345, 30770417, 41201312), Guangdong Natural Science Foundation (06202438) and State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong.

References

  1. Armstrong W (1979) Aeration in higher plants. Adv Bot Res 7:225–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armstrong J, Armstrong W (2005) Rice: sulphide-induced barriers to root radial oxyen loss, Fe2+ and water uptake, and lateral root emergence. Ann Bot 96:625–638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker AJM (1981) Accumulators and excluders-strategies in the response of plants to heavy metals. J Plant Nutr 3:643–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bubba MD, Arias CA, Brix H (2003) Phosphorus adsorption maximum of sands for use media in subsurface flow constructed reed beds as measured by the Langmuir isotherm. Water Res 37:3390–3400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chabbi A, McKee KL, Mendelssohn IA (2000) Fate of oxygen losses from Typha domingensis (Typhaceae) and Cladium jamaicense (Cyperaceae) and consequences for root metabolism. Am J Bot 87:1081–1090PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen Z, Zhu YG, Liu WJ, Meharg AA (2005) Direct evidence showing the effect of root surface iron plaque on arsenite and arsenate uptake into rice (Oryza sativa) roots. New Phytol 165:91–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Colmer TD (2003) Aerenchyma and an inducible barrier to radial oxygen loss facilitate root aeration in upland, paddy and deepwater rice (Oryza sativa L.). Ann Bot 91:301–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Crowder AA, St-Cyr L (1991) Iron oxide plaque on wetland roots. Trends Soil Sci 1:315–329Google Scholar
  9. Deng H, Ye ZH, Wong MH (2006) Lead and zinc accumulation and tolerance in populations of six wetland plants. Environ Pollut 141:69–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Deng H, Ye ZH, Wong MH (2009) Lead, zinc and iron (Fe2+) tolerances in wetland plants and relation to root anatomy and spatial pattern of ROL. Environ Exp Bot 65:353–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Evans DE (2003) Aerenchyma formation. New Phytol 161:35–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fan JL, Hu ZY, Ziadi N, Xia X, Yang C, Wu H (2010) Excessive sulfur supply reduces cadmium accumulation in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.). Environ Pollut 158:409–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gambrell RP, DeLaune RD, Partrick WH (1991) Redox proscesses in soils following oxygen depletion. In: Jackson MB, Davies DD, Lambers H (eds) Plant life under oxygen deprivation. SPB Academic Publishing, Hague, pp 101–117Google Scholar
  14. Greipsson S (1995) Effect of iron plaque on roots of rice on growth of plants in excess zinc and accumulation of phosphorus in plants in excess copper or nickel. J Plant Nutr 83:321–331Google Scholar
  15. Hansel CM, Force MJ, Fendorf S, Sutton S (2002) Spatial and temporal association of As and Fe species on aquatic plant roots. Environ Sci Technol 36:1988–1994PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hoagland DR, Arnon DI (1938) The Water Culture Method for Growing Plants without Soil. Cal Agr Exp Sta 15:221–227Google Scholar
  17. Hu ZY, Zhu YG, Li M, Zhang LG, Cao ZH, Smith FA (2007) Sulfur (S)-induced enhancement of iron plaque formation in the rhizosphere reduces arsenic accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings. Environ Pollut 147:387–393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jensen CR, Luxmoore RJ, Van Gundy SD, Stolzy LH (1969) Root air space measurements by a pycnometer method. Agron J 61:474–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kludze HK, Delaume RD, Patrick WH (1994) A colorimetric method for assaying dissolved oxygen loss from container-crown rice roots. Agron J 86:483–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Li H, Ye ZH, Wei ZJ, Wong MH (2011) Root porosity and radial oxygen loss related to arsenic tolerance and uptake in wetland plants. Environ Pollut 159:30–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lin ZQ, Terry N, Gao S, Mohamed S, Ye ZH (2010) Vegetation changes and partitioning of selenium in 4-year-old constructed wetlands treating agricultural drainage. Int J Phytoremediat 12:255–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Liu WJ, Zhu YG, Smith FA, Smith SE (2004) Do phosphorus nutrition and iron plaque alter arsenate (As) uptake by rice seedlings in hydroponic culture? New Phytol 162:481–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liu WJ, Zhu YG, Hu Y, Williams PN, Gault AG, Meharg AA, Charnock JM, Smith FA (2006) Arsenic sequestration in iron plaque, its accumulation and speciation in mature rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). Environ Sci Technol 40:5730–5736PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liu Y, Tam NFY, Yang JX, Pi N, Wong MH, Ye ZH (2009) Mixed heavy metals tolerance and radial oxygen loss in mangrove seedlings. Mar Pollut Bull 58:1843–1849PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lizama KA, Fletcher TD, Sun GZ (2011) Removal processes for arsenic in constructed wetlands. Chemosphere 84:1032–1043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. MacFarlane GR, Burchett MD (2002) Toxicity, growth and accumulation relationships of copper, lead and zinc in the grey mangrove, Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. Mar Environ Res 54:65–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Marchand L, Mench M, Jacob DL, Otte ML (2010) Metal and metalloid removal in constructed wetlands, with emphasis on the importance of plants and standardized measurements: a review. Environ Pollut 158:3447–3461PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Matthews DJ, Moran BM, Otte ML (2005) Screening the wetland plant species Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc and comparison with Eriophorum angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin. Environ Pollut 134:343–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McCabe OM, Daldwin JL, Otte ML (2001) Metal tolerance in wetland plants? Minerva Biotecnol 13:141–149Google Scholar
  30. Mei XQ, Ye ZH, Wong MH (2009) The relationship of root porosity and radial oxygen loss on arsenic tolerance and uptake in rice grains and straw. Environ Pollut 157:2550–2557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mei XQ, Wong MH, Yang Y, Dong HY, Qiu RL, Ye ZH (2012) The effects of radial oxygen loss on arsenic tolerance and uptake in rice and on its rhizosphere. Environ Pollut 165:109–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mendellsohn IA, Kleiss BA, Wakeley JS (1995) Factors controlling the formation of oxidized root channels—a review. Wetlands 15:37–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Otte ML, Rozema J, Koster L, Haarsma MS, Broekman RA (1989) Iron plaque on roots of Aster tripolium L., interaction with zinc uptake. New Phytol 111:309–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR (1982) Methods of soil analysis-chemical and microbiological properties. ASA and SSSA, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  35. Rogers ME, Colmer TD, Frost K, Henry D, Cornwall D, Hulm E, Deretic J, Hughes SR, Craig AD (2008) Diversity in the genus Melilotus for tolerance to salinity and waterlogging. Plant Soil 304:89–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sheoran AS, Sheoran V (2006) Heavy metal removal mechanism of acid mine drainage in wetlands: a critical review. Miner Eng 19:105–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Snowden RED, Wheeler BD (1993) Iron toxicity to fen plant species. J Ecol 81:35–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. St-Cyr L, Crowder AA (1990) Manganese and copper in the root plaque of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel. Soil Sci 149:191–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sundaravadivel M, Vigneswaran S (2001) Constructed wetland for wastewater treatment. Crit Rev Env Sci Tec 31:351–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Taylor GJ, Crowder AA (1983) Use of DCB technique for extraction of hydrous iron oxides from roots of wetland plants. Am J Bot 70:1254–1257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Van Bodegom PM, de Kanter M, Bakker C, Aerts R (2005) Radial oxygen loss, a plastic property of dune slack plant species. Plant Soil 271:351–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Weis JS, Weis P (2004) Metal uptake, transport and release by wetland plants: implications for phytoremediation and restoration. Environ Int 30:685–700PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wilkins DA (1978) The measurement of tolerance to edaphic factors by means of root growth. New Phytol 80:623–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yang JX, Ma ZL, Ye ZH, Guo XY, Qiu RL (2010) Heavy metal (Pb, Zn) uptake and chemical changes in rhizosphere soils of four wetland plants with different ROL. J Environ Sci-China 22:696–702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Yang JX, Liu Y, Ye ZH (2012) Root-induced changes (pH, Eh, Fe2+ and speciation of Pb and Zn) in rhizosphere soils of four wetland plants with different ROL. Pedosphere 22:518–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ye ZH, Baker AJM, Wong MH, Willis AJ (1997a) Zinc, lead and cadmium tolerance, uptake and accumulation by Typha latifolia. New Phytol 136:469–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ye ZH, Baker AJM, Wong MH, Willis AJ (1997b) Zinc, lead and cadmium tolerance, uptake and accumulation by the common reed, Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel. Ann Bot 80:363–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ye ZH, Baker AJM, Wong MH, Willis AJ (1998) Zinc, lead and cadmium accumulation and tolerance in Typha latifolia as affected by iron plaque on the root surface. Aquat Bot 61:55–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ye ZH, Whiting S, Qian JH, Lytle CM, Lin ZQ, Terry N (2001) Trace element removal from coal pile leachate by an Alabama 10-year old constructed wetland. J Environ Qual 30:1710–1719PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ye ZH, Wong MH, Lan CY (2004) Use of a wetland system for treating Pb/Zn mine effluent: a case study in southern China from 1984 to 2002. In: Wong MH (ed) Wetland ecosystems in Asia: function and management. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 413–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zhang XK, Zhang FS, Mao DR (1998) Effect of Fe plaque outside roots on nutrient uptake by rice (Oryza sativa L.): zinc uptake. Plant Soil 202:33–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Junxing Yang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nora Fung-Yee Tam
    • 3
    • 4
  • Zhihong Ye
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory for Bio-control and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, School of Life SciencesSun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Center for Environmental Remediation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources ResearchChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Department of Biology and ChemistryCity University of Hong KongHong KongHong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China
  4. 4.State Key Laboratory in Marine PollutionCity University of Hong KongHong KongHong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations