Plant and Soil

, Volume 373, Issue 1–2, pp 317–327 | Cite as

Root orientation can affect detection accuracy of ground-penetrating radar

  • Toko Tanikawa
  • Yasuhiro Hirano
  • Masako Dannoura
  • Keitarou Yamase
  • Kenji Aono
  • Masahiro Ishii
  • Tetsurou Igarashi
  • Hidetoshi Ikeno
  • Yoichi Kanazawa
Regular Article

Abstract

Aim

Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has been applied to detect coarse tree roots. The horizontal angle of a root crossing a scanning line is a factor that affects both root detection and waveform parameter values. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the influence of root orientation (x, degree) on two major waveform parameters, amplitude area (A, dB × ns) and time interval between zero crossings (T, ns).

Methods

We scanned four diameter classes of dowels in a sandy bed as simulated roots using a 900 MHz antenna from multiple angles to clarify the relationships between the parameters and x.

Results

Angle x strongly affected reflection images and A values. The variation in A(x) fitted a sinusoidal waveform, whereas T was independent of x. The value of A scanning at 90° was estimated by A values of arbitrary x in two orthogonal transects. The sum of T in all reflected waveforms showed a significant linear correlation with dowel diameter.

Conclusions

We clarified that root orientation dramatically affected root detection and A values. The sum of T of all reflected waveforms was a suitable parameter for estimating root diameter. Applying grid transects can overcome the effects of root orientation.

Keywords

Carbon storage Coarse root Grid transect Nondestructive root method Root angle Root diameter 

Abbreviations

GPR

Ground-penetrating radar

x

Root angle subtended to the transecting lines

A

Amplitude area

T

Time interval between zero crossings

ΣA

Sum of amplitude areas for all of reflection waveforms

ΣT

Sum of time intervals for all reflection waveforms

Single Amax

Amplitude area of the maximum reflection waveform

Single Tmax

Time interval of the maximum reflection waveform

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Toko Tanikawa
    • 1
  • Yasuhiro Hirano
    • 2
  • Masako Dannoura
    • 3
  • Keitarou Yamase
    • 4
  • Kenji Aono
    • 5
  • Masahiro Ishii
    • 5
  • Tetsurou Igarashi
    • 5
  • Hidetoshi Ikeno
    • 6
  • Yoichi Kanazawa
    • 7
  1. 1.Kansai Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research InstituteFushimiJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of Environmental StudiesNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Graduate School of AgricultureKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  4. 4.Hyogo Prefectural Technology Center for Agriculture, Forestry and FisheriesShisoJapan
  5. 5.The General Environmental Technos Co., Ltd. (KANSO TECHNOS)OsakaJapan
  6. 6.School of Human Science and EnvironmentUniversity of HyogoHimejiJapan
  7. 7.Graduate School of Agricultural SciencesKobe UniversityKobeJapan

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