Can soil acidity and light help to explain tree species effects on forest herb layer performance in post-agricultural forests?
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Tree species affect herb layer species through their effects on soil quality and light regime but their relative importance and interactions are insufficiently known.
Pot experiment with soil taken from stands planted with tree species with contrasting effects on soil acidification, two light regimes and six forest perennials.
The survival or growth of Mercurialis perennis, Lamium galeobdolon, Anemone nemorosa and Primula elatior was lower in the acid Alnus soils than in the less acid Fraxinus soils. By contrast, the acid tolerant Convallaria majalis and Dryopteris dilatata were barely affected by tree species. Light conditions had less impact than soil chemistry and did not compensate for unfavourable soil conditions. Ca and P concentrations increased in plants grown in Fraxinus soils. The Mg and Al shoot/root ratios of respectively one and two of the acid tolerant species was elevated in the most acid soil.
Tree species effects on forest perennials are mainly explained by increased Al concentrations under acidifying species. Changed plant concentrations and allocation are likely associated to Al antagonism. We found no light compensation for the soil effect on the studied species. However, light alters the plant nutrient concentrations and allocation which may suggest an indirect effect.
KeywordsOverstory-understory interactions Plant nutrient concentrations Al toxicity Soil acidification Ecological compensation Post-agricultural forest
Thanks to the Agency of Nature and Forests for the permission to collect the soil. Thanks to Stefaan Goessens, Marc Esprit, Stefaan Moreels and Kristine Vander Mijnsbrugge for the practical help with the experiment, Pieter Verschelde for evaluating the possibility of using path analyses. A.D.S. and L.B. were funded by the Research Foundation Flanders (FWO) and G.V. by the Institute for the Promotion of Innovation by Science and Technology in Flanders (IWT). We like to acknowledge Jan Plue and two reviewers for reviewing an earlier version of the ms.
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