Plant and Soil

, Volume 373, Issue 1–2, pp 17–30 | Cite as

Background nitrous oxide emissions in agricultural and natural lands: a meta-analysis

  • Dong-Gill Kim
  • Donna Giltrap
  • Guillermo Hernandez-Ramirez
Regular Article

Abstract

Aim

This study aimed at better characterising background nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions (BNE) in agricultural and natural lands.

Methods

We compiled and analysed field-measured data for annual background N2O emission in agricultural (BNEA) and natural (BNEN) lands from 600 and 307 independent experimental studies, respectively.

Results

There were no significant differences between BNEA (median: 0.70 & mean: 1.52 kg N2O − N ha−1 yr−1) and BNEN (median:0.31 & mean:1.75 kg N2O − N ha−1 yr−1) (P > 0.05). A simultaneous comparison across all BNEA and BNEN indicated that BNEs from riparian, vegetable crop fields and intentional fallow areas were significantly higher than from boreal forests (P < 0.05). Correlation and regression analyses supported the underlying associations of soil organic carbon (C), nitrogen (N), pH, bulk density (BD),and/or air temperature (AT) with BNEs to a varying degree as a function of land-use or ecosystem type (Ps < 0.05).

Conclusions

Although overall BNEN tended to be lower than BNEA on median basis, results in general suggest that land-use shifts between natural and managed production systems would not result in consistent changes in BNE.

Keywords

Background nitrous oxide emissions Agricultural lands Natural lands Land-use type Meta-analysis Negative nitrous oxide flux 

Supplementary material

11104_2013_1762_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (290 kb)
ESM 1We have created a Blog entitled ‘Background nitrous oxide emissions in agricultural and natural lands’ (http://backgroundn2oemissions.blogspot.com/) and an open-access database entitled ‘Background nitrous oxide emissions in agricultural and natural lands database’ (https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/ccc?key=0AjWu6bR8SA9idHpEb1l6ZWlPbm14bUd6cXhxcjZjQ0E; linked in the Blog) based on this review. In the Blog, we have posted a technical summary of each section of this review, where comments can be left under the posts. The database contains detailed information on the studies reported on the background nitrous oxide emissions in agricultural and natural lands, such as location, climate, crop type, soil properties, N2O emission measurement periods, N input rate, biomass yield, and cumulative N2O emission. The authors do not have any relationship with the companies currently being used to host the Blog and databases. (XLSX 289 kb)

References

  1. Akiyama H, Yagi K, Yan X (2005) Direct N2O emissions from rice paddy fields: summary of available data. Global Biogeochem Cy 19, GB1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akiyama H, Yan X, Yagi K (2006) Estimations of emission factors for fertilizer-induced direct N2O emissions from agricultural soils in Japan: summary of available data. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 52:774–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arp DJ, Stein LY (2003) Metabolism of inorganic N compounds by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 38:471–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aulakh MS, Walters DT, Doran JW, Francis DD, Mosier AR (1991) Crop residue type and placement effects on denitrification and mineralization. Soil Sci Soc Am J 55:1020–1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baggs EM (2011) Soil microbial sources of nitrous oxide: recent advances in knowledge, emerging challenges and future direction. Curr Opin Environ Sus 3:321–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhandral R, Saggar S, Bolan NS, Hedley MJ (2007) Transformation of nitrogen and nitrous oxide emission from grassland soils as affected by compaction. Soil Tillage Res 94:482–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bouwman AF (1996) Direct emission of nitrous oxide from agricultural soils. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 46:53–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Box GEP, Cox DR (1964) An analysis of transformations. J Roy Stat Soc 26:211–234Google Scholar
  9. Bradley RL, Whalen J, Chagnon PL, Lanoix M, Alves MC (2011) Nitrous oxide production and potential denitrification in soils from riparian buffer strips: influence of earthworms and plant litter. Appl Soil Ecol 47:6–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bremner JM (1997) Sources of nitrous oxide in soils. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 49:7–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown L, Syed B, Jarvis SC, Sneath RW, Phillips VR, Goulding KWT, Li C (2002) Development and application of a mechanistic model to estimate emission of nitrous oxide from UK agriculture. Atmos Environ 36:917–928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Butterbach-Bahl K, Breuer L, Gasche R, Willibald G, Papen H (2002) Exchange of trace gases between soils and the atmosphere in Scots pine forest ecosystems of the northeastern German lowlands: 1. Fluxes of N2O, NO/NO2 and CH4 at forest sites with different N-deposition. For Ecol Manage 167:123–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chapuis-Lardy L, Wrage N, Metay A, Chotte JL, Bernoux M (2007) Soils, a sink for N2O? A review. Glob Change Biol 13:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Crutzen P (1970) The influence of nitrogen oxides on the atmospheric ozone content. Q J Roy Meteor Soc 96:320–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crutzen PJ, Mosier AR, Smith KA, Winiwarter W (2008) N2O release from agro-biofuel production negates global warming reduction by replacing fossil fuels. Atmos Chem Phys 8:389–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Curtin D, Beare MH, Hernandez-Ramirez G(2012) Temperature and moisture effects on microbial biomass and soil organic matter mineralization. Soil Sci Soc Am J doi: 10.2136/sssaj2012.0011 (available online 24 July 2012)
  17. Dalal RC, Allen DE (2008) Greenhouse gas fluxes from natural ecosystems. Aust J Bot 56:369–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. de Klein CAM, Eckard RJ, van der Weerden TJ (2010) Nitrous oxide emissions from the N cycle in livestock agriculture: estimation and mitigation. In: Nitrous Oxide and Climate Change (Ed. K.A. Smith), Earthscan Publications. pp 107–142Google Scholar
  19. Dobbie KE, Smith KA (2001) The effects of temperature, water-filled pore space and land-use on N2O emissions from an imperfectly drained gleysol. Eur J Soil Sci 52:667–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Forster P, Ramaswamy V, Artaxo P, Berntsen T, Betts R, Fahey D, Haywood J, Lean J, Lowe D, Myhre G (2007) Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (Ed.), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis., pp. 129–234Google Scholar
  21. Groffman P, Hanson G (1997) Wetland denitrification: influence of site quality and relationships with wetland delineation protocols. Soil Sci Soc Am J 61:323–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Groffman PM, Gold AJ, Jacinthe PA (1998) Nitrous oxide production in riparian zones and groundwater. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 52:179–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gu J, Zheng X, Wang Y, Ding W, Zhu B, Chen X, Wang Y, Zhao Z, Shi Y, Zhu J (2007) Regulatory effects of soil properties on background N2O emissions from agricultural soils in China. Plant Soil 295:53–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gu J, Zheng X, Zhang W (2009) Background nitrous oxide emissions from croplands in China in the year 2000. Plant Soil 320:307–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hefting M, Beltman B, Karssenberg D, Rebel K, van Riessen M, Spijker M (2006) Water quality dynamics and hydrology in nitrate loaded riparian zones in the Netherlands. Environ Pollut 139:143–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hernandez-Ramirez G, Brouder SM, Smith DR, Van Scoyoc GE (2009a) Greenhouse gas fluxes in an eastern corn belt soil: weather, nitrogen source and rotation. J Environ Qual 38:841–854PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hernandez-Ramirez G, Brouder SM, Smith DR, Van Scoyoc GE, Michalski G (2009b) Nitrous oxide production in an eastern corn belt soil: sources and redox range. Soil Sci Soc Am J 73:1182–1191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Huang Y, Zou J, Zheng X, Wang Y, Xu X (2004) Nitrous oxide emissions as influenced by amendment of plant residues with different C:N ratios. Soil Biol Biochem 36:973–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2006) IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories. IGES, HayamaGoogle Scholar
  30. Kim D-G, Isenhart TM, Parkin TB, Schultz RC, Loynachan TE, Raich JW (2009) Nitrous oxide emissions from riparian forest buffers, warm-season and cool-season grass filters, and crop fields. Biogeosci Discuss 6:607–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kim D-G, Hernandez-Ramirez G, Giltrap D (2012a) Linear and nonlinear dependency of direct nitrous oxide emissions on fertilizer nitrogen input: a meta-analysis. Agric Ecosyst Environ 168:53–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kim D-G, Vargas R, Bond-Lamberty B, Turetsky MR (2012b) Effects of soil rewetting and thawing on soil gas fluxes: a review of current literature and suggestions for future research. Biogeosciences 9:2459–2483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Knowles R (1982) Denitrification. Microbiol Rev 46:43–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Kowalchuk GA, Stephen JR (2001) Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria: a model for molecular microbial ecology. Ann Rev Microbiol 55:485–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kruskal WH, Wallis WA (1952) Use of ranks in one-criterion variance analysis. J Am Stat Assoc 47:583–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Li C, Zhuang Y, Cao M, Crilll P, Dai Z, Frolking S, Moore B, Salas W, Song W, Wang X (2001) Comparing a national inventory of N2O emissions from arable lands in China developed with a process-based agro-ecosystem model to the IPCC methodology. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 60:159–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Miller MN, Zebarth BJ, Dandie CE, Burton DL, Goyer C, Trevors JT (2008) Crop residue influence on denitrification, N2O emissions and denitrifier community abundance in soil. Soil Biol Biochem 40:2553–2562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Neftel A, Flechard C, Ammann C, Conen F, Emmenegger L, Zeyer K (2007) Experimental assessment of N2O background fluxes in grassland systems. Tellus B 59:470–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Parkin TB, Kaspar TC (2006) Nitrous oxide emissions from corn–soybean systems in the Midwest. J Environ Qual 35:1496–1506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Parkin TB, Kaspar TC, Singer JW (2006) Cover crop effects on the fate of N following soil application of swine manure. Plant Soil 289:141–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Patureau D, Zumstein E, Delgenes J, Moletta R (2000) Aerobic denitrifiers isolated from diverse natural and managed ecosystems. Microb Ecol 39:145–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pihlatie MK, Christiansen JR, Aaltonen H, Korhonen JFJ, Nordbo A, Rasilo T, Benanti G, Giebels M, Helmy M, Sheehy J, Jones S, Juszczak R, Klefoth R, Lobo-do-Vale R, Rosa AP, Schreiber P, Serça D, Vicca S, Wolf B, Pumpanen J (2013) Comparison of static chambers to measure CH4 emissions from soils. Agr For Meteorol 171–172:124–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Reich PB, Hobbie SE, Lee T, Ellsworth DS, West JB, Tilman D, Knops JMH, Naeem S, Trost J (2005) Nitrogen limitation constrains sustainability of ecosystem response to CO2. Nature 440:922–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rochette P, Eriksen-Hamel NS (2008) Chamber measurements of soil nitrous oxide flux: are absolute values reliable? Soil Sci So Am J 72:331–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Russell AE, Raich JW (2012) Rapidly growing tropical trees mobilize remarkable amounts of nitrogen, in ways that differ surprisingly among species. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109:10398–10402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Saggar S, Luo J, Kim D-G, Jha N (2011) Intensification in pastoral farming: impacts on soil attributes and gaseous emissions. In: B. P. Singh, A. Cowie and Y. Chan (Eds.), Soil Health and Climate Change (Soil Biology Series). Springer-Verlag. pp. 207–236Google Scholar
  47. Sauer TJ, Compston SR, West CP, Hernandez-Ramirez G, Gbur EE, Parkin TB (2009) Nitrous oxide emissions from a bermudagrass pasture: interseeded winter rye and poultry litter. Soil Biol Biochem 41:1417–1424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shapiro SS, Wilk MB (1965) An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples). Biometrika 52:591–611Google Scholar
  49. Smith DR, Hernandez-Ramirez G, Bucholtz DL, Shalamar SD, Stott DE (2011) Nitrogen fertilizer and tillage management impacts on non-CO2greenhouse emissions in corn/soybean and biomass cropping systems. Soil Sci Soc Am J 75:1070–1082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sozanska M, Skiba U, Metcalfe S (2002) Developing an inventory of N2O emissions from British soils. Atmos Environ 36:987–998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Stehfest E, Bouwman L (2006) N2O and NO emission from agricultural fields and soils under natural vegetation: summarizing available measurement data and modeling of global annual emissions. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 74:207–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Uchida Y, Clough TJ, Kelliher FM, Sherlock RR (2008) Effects of aggregate size, soil compaction, and bovine urine on N2O emissions from a pasture soil. Soil Biol Biochem 40:924–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. van Beek CL, Pleijter M, Kuikman PJ (2011) Nitrous oxide emissions from fertilized and unfertilized grasslands on peat soil. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 89:453–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. van Groenigen WJ, Velthof GL, van der Bolt FJE, Vos A, Kuikman PJ (2005) Seasonal variation in N2O emissions from urine patches: effects of urine concentration, soil compaction and dung. Plant Soil 273:15–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Vitousek PM, Aber JD, Howarth RW, Likens GE, Matson PA, Schindler D, Schlesinger WH, Tilman D (1997) Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: sources and consequences. Ecol Appl 7:737–750Google Scholar
  56. Wang WC, Yung YL, Lacis AA, Mo T, Hansen JE (1976) Greenhouse effects due to man-mad perturbations of trace gases. Science 194:685–690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wang J, Xiong Z, Yan X (2011) Fertilizer-induced emission factors and background emissions of N2O from vegetable fields in China. Atmos Environ 45:6923–6929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Watts SH, Seitzinger SP (2000) Denitrification rates in organic and mineral soils from riparian sites: a comparison of N2 flux and acetylene inhibition methods. Soil Biol Biochem 32:1383–1392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wrage N, Velthof GL, van Beusichem ML, Oenema O (2001) Role of nitrifier denitrification in the production of nitrous oxide. Soil Biol Biochem 33:1723–1732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yan X, Akimoto H, Ohara T (2003) Estimation of nitrous oxide, nitric oxide and ammonia emissions from croplands in East, Southeast and South Asia. Glob Change Biol 9:1080–1096CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dong-Gill Kim
    • 1
  • Donna Giltrap
    • 2
  • Guillermo Hernandez-Ramirez
    • 3
  1. 1.Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural ResourcesHawassa UniversityShashemeneEthiopia
  2. 2.Landcare ResearchPalmerston NorthNew Zealand
  3. 3.Department of Renewable ResourcesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations