Background nitrous oxide emissions in agricultural and natural lands: a meta-analysis
This study aimed at better characterising background nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions (BNE) in agricultural and natural lands.
We compiled and analysed field-measured data for annual background N2O emission in agricultural (BNEA) and natural (BNEN) lands from 600 and 307 independent experimental studies, respectively.
There were no significant differences between BNEA (median: 0.70 & mean: 1.52 kg N2O − N ha−1 yr−1) and BNEN (median:0.31 & mean:1.75 kg N2O − N ha−1 yr−1) (P > 0.05). A simultaneous comparison across all BNEA and BNEN indicated that BNEs from riparian, vegetable crop fields and intentional fallow areas were significantly higher than from boreal forests (P < 0.05). Correlation and regression analyses supported the underlying associations of soil organic carbon (C), nitrogen (N), pH, bulk density (BD),and/or air temperature (AT) with BNEs to a varying degree as a function of land-use or ecosystem type (Ps < 0.05).
Although overall BNEN tended to be lower than BNEA on median basis, results in general suggest that land-use shifts between natural and managed production systems would not result in consistent changes in BNE.
KeywordsBackground nitrous oxide emissions Agricultural lands Natural lands Land-use type Meta-analysis Negative nitrous oxide flux
- Box GEP, Cox DR (1964) An analysis of transformations. J Roy Stat Soc 26:211–234Google Scholar
- Butterbach-Bahl K, Breuer L, Gasche R, Willibald G, Papen H (2002) Exchange of trace gases between soils and the atmosphere in Scots pine forest ecosystems of the northeastern German lowlands: 1. Fluxes of N2O, NO/NO2 and CH4 at forest sites with different N-deposition. For Ecol Manage 167:123–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Curtin D, Beare MH, Hernandez-Ramirez G(2012) Temperature and moisture effects on microbial biomass and soil organic matter mineralization. Soil Sci Soc Am J doi: 10.2136/sssaj2012.0011 (available online 24 July 2012)
- de Klein CAM, Eckard RJ, van der Weerden TJ (2010) Nitrous oxide emissions from the N cycle in livestock agriculture: estimation and mitigation. In: Nitrous Oxide and Climate Change (Ed. K.A. Smith), Earthscan Publications. pp 107–142Google Scholar
- Forster P, Ramaswamy V, Artaxo P, Berntsen T, Betts R, Fahey D, Haywood J, Lean J, Lowe D, Myhre G (2007) Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (Ed.), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis., pp. 129–234Google Scholar
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2006) IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories. IGES, HayamaGoogle Scholar
- Pihlatie MK, Christiansen JR, Aaltonen H, Korhonen JFJ, Nordbo A, Rasilo T, Benanti G, Giebels M, Helmy M, Sheehy J, Jones S, Juszczak R, Klefoth R, Lobo-do-Vale R, Rosa AP, Schreiber P, Serça D, Vicca S, Wolf B, Pumpanen J (2013) Comparison of static chambers to measure CH4 emissions from soils. Agr For Meteorol 171–172:124–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Saggar S, Luo J, Kim D-G, Jha N (2011) Intensification in pastoral farming: impacts on soil attributes and gaseous emissions. In: B. P. Singh, A. Cowie and Y. Chan (Eds.), Soil Health and Climate Change (Soil Biology Series). Springer-Verlag. pp. 207–236Google Scholar
- Shapiro SS, Wilk MB (1965) An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples). Biometrika 52:591–611Google Scholar
- Vitousek PM, Aber JD, Howarth RW, Likens GE, Matson PA, Schindler D, Schlesinger WH, Tilman D (1997) Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: sources and consequences. Ecol Appl 7:737–750Google Scholar