Plant and Soil

, Volume 372, Issue 1–2, pp 221–233 | Cite as

The effect of rate and Cd concentration of repeated phosphate fertilizer applications on seed Cd concentration varies with crop type and environment

  • Cynthia Grant
  • Don Flaten
  • Mario Tenuta
  • Sukhdev Malhi
  • Wole Akinremi
Regular Article

Abstract

Background and aims

Limited information is available on how cadmium (Cd) applied in phosphate fertilizer interacts with soil and environmental conditions over time to affect crop Cd concentrations.

Methods

Field studies from 2002 to 2009 at seven locations evaluated the cumulative effects of P fertilizer rate and Cd concentration on seed Cd concentration of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) and flax (Linum usitatissiumum L.).

Results

Soil characteristics and environment affected Cd availability. Durum wheat grain Cd increased with P fertilizer rate but effect on flaxseed Cd concentration was smaller. Cadmium concentration in fertilizer had a greater effect on flaxseed than durum wheat Cd concentration. Seed Cd concentration of both crops was greatest with the highest rate P fertilizer containing the highest Cd concentration. There was not a strong cumulative effect of fertilization over the 8 years of the study, indicating attenuation of Cd availability over time.

Conclusions

Cadmium in phosphate fertilizer increases Cd available for crop uptake, but crop Cd concentration is also affected by soil characteristics and annual environmental conditions. Type of crop produced and soil and environmental characteristics that affect phytoavailability must be taken into account when assessing the Cd risk from P fertilization.

Keywords

Cadmium Durum wheat Flaxseed Linseed Metal Trace element 

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Copyright information

© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cynthia Grant
    • 1
  • Don Flaten
    • 2
  • Mario Tenuta
    • 2
  • Sukhdev Malhi
    • 3
  • Wole Akinremi
    • 2
  1. 1.Agriculture and Agri-Food CanadaBrandonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Soil ScienceUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  3. 3.Agriculture and Agri-Food CanadaMelfortCanada

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