Occluded C in rice phytoliths: implications to biogeochemical carbon sequestration
Carbon (C) bio-sequestration within the phytoliths of plants, a mechanism of long-term biogeochemical C sequestration, may play a major role in the global C cycle and climate change. In this study, we explored the potential of C bio-sequestration within phytoliths produced in cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), a well known silicon accumulator.
The rice phytolith extraction was undertaken with microwave digestion procedures and the determination of occluded C in phytoliths was based on dissolution methods of phytolith-Si.
Chemical analysis indicates that the phytolith-occluded C (PhytOC) contents of the different organs (leaf, stem, sheath and grains) on a dry weight basis in 5 rice cultivars range from 0.4 mg g−1 to 2.8 mg g−1, and the C content of phytoliths from grains is much lower than that of leaf, stem and sheath. The data also show that the PhytOC content of rice depends on both the content of phytoliths and the efficiency of C occlusion within phytoliths during rice growth. The biogeochemical C sequestration flux of phytoliths in 5 rice cultivars is approximately 0.03–0.13 Mg of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents (Mg-e-CO2) ha−1 year−1. From 1950 to 2010, about 2.37 × 108 Mg of CO2 equivalents might have been sequestrated within the rice phytoliths in China. Assuming a maximum phytoliths C bio-sequestration flux of 0.13 Mg-e-CO2 ha−1 year−1, the global annual potential rate of CO2 sequestrated in rice phytoliths would approximately be 1.94 × 107 Mg.
Therefore rice crops may play a significant role in long-term C sequestration through the formation of PhytOC.
KeywordsCarbon sequestration PhytOC Phytolith Rice
We are grateful for support from National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41103042), Zhejiang Province Key Science and Technology Innovation Team (NO.2010R50030), Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation Program (Grant No. Y5080110 and Z5080203), Opening Project of State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry (SKLEG9011), Opening Project of Ministry of Education Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, Peking University. We thank Pr. Dr. Zhihong Cao and Miss Fang Huang for their help in sampling.
- Baker G (1961) Opal phytoliths and adventitious mineral particles in Wheat dust. CSIRO, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
- Bao SD, Yang XR, Li XQ, Zhang MJ (1996) The effect of wheat yields on silicon nutrition and the zinc silicon fertilizer in calcareous soils. Soil 6:311–315 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Bowdery D (2007) Phytolith analysis: sheep, diet and fecal material at Ambathala Pastoral Station, Queensland, Australia. In: Madella M, Débora Z (eds) Plant, people and places–recent studies in phytolith analysis. Oxbow, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- Cao ZH, Yang LZ, Lin XG, Hu ZY, Dong YH, Zhang GY et al (2007) Morphological characteristics of paddy fields, paddy soil profile, phytoliths and fossil rice grain of the Neolithic age in Yangtze River Delta. Acta Pedologica Sin 44:839–847 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
- Chen JG, Zhang YZ, Zeng XB, Zhou WJ, Zhou J (2008) Effect of long-term various fertilization on exchangeable Ca and Mg, and available S and Si contents in paddy soils. Ecol Environ 17:2064–2067Google Scholar
- China Sannong Data NetWork (CSDN) (2011) http://www.sannong.gov.cn
- China Soil Scientific Database (CSSD) (2012) http://mirror.soil.csdb.cn/page/showItem. vpage?id = cn. csdb. soil. taxonomy. cst Yagang/
- DOE (2008) International Energy Outlook 2008 Energy Information Administration Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting. US. Department of Energy, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Falkowski P, Scholes RJ, Boyle E, Canadell J, Canfield D, Elser J, Gruber N, Hibbard K, Högberg P, Linder S, Mackenzie FT, Moore B III, Pedersen T, Rosenthal Y, Seitzinger S, Smetacek V, Steffen W (2000) The global carbon cycle: a test of our knowledge of earth as a system. Science 290:291–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hart DM, Humphreys GS (1997) Plant opal phytoliths: an Australian perspective. Quatern Aust 15:17–25Google Scholar
- International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) (2011) http://beta.irri.org/
- Korndorfer GH, Lepsch I (2001) Effect of silicon on plant growth and crop yield. In: Datnoff LE, Snyder GH, Korndorfer GH (eds) Silicon in agriculture. Elsevier Science B V, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- Kosten S, Roland F, Da Motta Marques DML, Van Nes EH, Mazzeo N, Stemberg LDSL, Scheffer M, Cole JJ (2010) Climate-dependent CO2 emissions from lakes. Global Biogeochem Cy 24. doi: 10.1029/2009GB003618
- Lu RK (2000) Methods for soil and agrochemical analysis. China Agriculture Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
- Ma JF, Takahashi E (2002) Amsterdam: Elsevier Science; Soil, fertilizer, and plant silicon research in Japan, 1st edn. Elsevier Science, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- Matichenkov V, Calvert D, Snyder G (1999) Silicon fertilizers for citrus in Florida. Proc Fla State Hort Soc 112:5–8Google Scholar
- McKenzie N, Ryan P, Fogarty P, Wood J (2000) Sampling, measurement and analytical protocols for carbon estimation in soil, litter and coarse woody debris, Australian Greenhouse Office, National Carbon Accounting System, Technical Report no 14:1–42Google Scholar
- Mulholland SC, Prior CA (1993) AMS radiocarbon dating of phytoliths. In: Pearsall DM, Piperno DR (eds) MASCA research papers in science and archaeology. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, pp 21–23Google Scholar
- Murphy D (2002) Fundamentals of light microscopy and electronic imaging. A John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 121 ppGoogle Scholar
- National Bureau of Statistics of China (NBSC) (2011) http://www.stats.gov.cn/
- Oldenburg CM, Torn MS, DeAngelis KM, Ajo-Franklin JB, Amundson RG, Bernacchi CJ, et al. (2008) Biologically enhanced carbon sequestration: Research needs opportunities. Report on the Energy Biosciences Institute Workshop on Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration, October 29 2007, Berkeley, CA, LBNL–713EGoogle Scholar
- Parr JF (2006) Effect of fire on phytolith coloration. Geo-archaeology 21:171–185Google Scholar
- Pearsall DM (1989) Paleoethnobotany: a handbook of procedures. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Piperno DR (1988) Phytolith analysis: an archaeological and geological perspective. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Schlesinger WH (1997) Biogeochemistry: an analysis of global change. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Skjemstad JO, Spouncer LR, Beech A (2000) Carbon conversion factors for historical soil carbon data. 15, CSIRO Land and Water, AdelaideGoogle Scholar
- Song ZL, Wang HL, Strong PJ, Li ZM, Jiang PK (2012b) Plant impact on the coupled terrestrial biogeochemical cycles of silicon and carbon: Implications for biogeochemical carbon sequestration. Earth Sci Rev 319–331Google Scholar
- Wang SM, Zhang CH, Hu FX, Zeng K, Zhang WH, Wang WJ (2008) The quantitative analysis of rice aboveground biomass and net primary productivity. Chinese Agr Sci Bull 24:201–205 (In Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
- Zhang YL, Yu L, Liu MD, Yu N (2008) Silicon liberation characteristics of soil and its effect factors after applying slag mucks I Relationships between Calcium, Magnesium, Iron and Aluminium and Silicon liberation. Chinese J Soil Sci 39:722–725 (In Chinese)Google Scholar