Plant and Soil

, Volume 370, Issue 1–2, pp 187–195 | Cite as

Root exudation pattern of Typha latifolia L. plants after copper exposure

  • Lyudmila Lyubenova
  • Arnd J. Kuhn
  • Agnes Höltkemeier
  • Peter Schröder
Regular Article



Typha latifolia L. is an aquatic plant that has been widely exploited for the aims of phytoremediation. The main reason why we have chosen this plant species for the current study is its capacity to accumulate and detoxify heavy metals. The main topic of the investigation focused on the root uptake of copper (II) nitrate and copper (II) sulfate and the impact of different chemical copper species on the excreted organic acids.


Oxalic, malic, acetic and lactic acids were determined using capillary electrophoresis; a comparison between the concentration and the time course during 7 days of treatment was performed.


There is a correlation between the total copper (II) sulfate concentration in the roots and the total amount of the excreted organic acids. In addition to that organic acids are involved in the detoxification mechanisms of Typha latifolia for copper (II) nitrate and copper (II) sulfate.


Different from so far investigated plant species the highest amounts of organic acids are excreted from T. latifolia roots not in the first hours after treatment, but up to 7 days later.


Copper sulfate Copper nitrate Greenhouse exposure Organic acids Exsudation pattern Typha latifolia


  1. Alonso-Castro AJ, Carranza-Álvarez CC, Alfredo-De la Torre MC, Chavez-Guerrero LC, Garcia-De la Cruz RF (2009) Removal and accumulation of cadmium and lead by Typha latifolia exposed to single and mixed metal solutions. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 57:688–696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barbas C, Garcia JAL, Manero FJG (1999) Separation and identification of organic acids in root exudates of Lupinus luteus by capillary zone electrophoresis. Phytochem Anal 10:55–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bazzanella A, Lochmann H, Mainka A, Bächmann K (1997) Determination of inorganic anions, carboxylic acids and amino acids in plant matrices by capillary zone electrophoresis. Chromatographia 45:59–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blossfeld S, Gansert D, Thiele B, Kuhn AJ, Lösch R (2011) The dynamics of oxygen concentration, pH value, and organic acids in the rhizosphere of Juncus spp. Soil Biol Biochem 43:1186–1197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chiang P-N, Wang MK, Chiu CY, Chou S-Y (2006) Effects of cadmium amendment on low-molecular-weight organic acid exudates in rhizosphere soils of tobacco and sunflower. Environ Toxicol 21:479–488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dakora FD, Phillips DA (1996) Diverse functions of isoflavonoids in legumes transcend antimicrobial definitions of phytoalexins. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 49:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dakora FD, Phillips DA (2002) Root exudates as mediators of mineral acquisition in low-nutrient environment. Plant Soil 245:35–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Delhaize E, Ryan PR, Randall PJ (1993a) Aluminium tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). I. Uptake and distribution of aluminium in root apices. Plant Physiol 103:685–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Delhaize E, Craig S, Beaton CD, Bennet RJ, Jagadish VC, Randall PJ (1993b) Aluminium tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) II. Aluminium-stimulated excretion of malic acid from root apices. Plant Physiol 103:695–702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Gardner WK, Barber DA, Parbery DG (1983) The acquisition of phosphorus by Lupinus albus L. III. The probable mechanism by which phosphorus movement in the soil/root interface in enhanced. Plant Soil 70:107–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jones DL, Brassington DS (1998) Concentration, pH and metal dependent organic acid sorption in acid soils and its interactions in the rhizosphere. Eur J Soil Sci 49:447–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Küpper H, Götz B, Mijovilovich A, Küpper FC, Meyer-Klaucke W (2009) Complexation and toxicity of copper in higher plants. I. Characterization of copper accumulation, speciation, and toxicity in Crassula helmsii as a new copper accumulator. Plant Physiol 151:702–714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Li XF, Ma JF, Matsumoto H (2000) Pattern of aluminium-induced secretion of organic acids differ between rye and wheat. Plant Physiol 123:1537–1543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lyubenova L, Pongrac P, Vogel-Mikus K, Mezek GK, Vavpetič P, Grlj N, Kump P, Nečemer M, Regvar M, Pelicon P, Schröder P (2012) Localization and quantification of Pb and nutrients in Typha latifolia by micro-PIXE. Metallomics 4:333–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ma JF, Zheng SJ, Matsumoto H (1997a) Specific secretion of citric acid induced by Al stress in Cassia tora L. Plant Cell Physiol 38:1019–1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ma JF, Hiradate S, Nomoto K, Iwashita T, Matsumoto H (1997b) Internal detoxification mechanism of Al in hydragea (Identification of Al form in the leaves). Plant Physiol 113:1033–1039PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Ma JF, Hiradate S, Matsumoto H (1998) High aluminium resistance in buckwheat. II. Oxalic acid detoxifies aluminium internally. Plant Physiol 117:753–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mariano ED, Jorge RA, Keltjens WG, Menossi M (2005) Metabolism and root exudation of organic acids anions under aluminium stress. Braz J Plant Physiol 17:157–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Marschner H (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Ed. Academic Press. London, pp 889Google Scholar
  20. Mench M, Schwitzguébel J-P, Schroeder P, Bert V, Gawronski S, Gupta S (2009) Assessment of successful experiments and limitations of phytotechnologies: contaminant uptake, detoxification and sequestration, and consequences for food safety. Environ Sci Pollut Res 16:876–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Michalke B, Maier M, Tischer T, Anetzberger H, Gerdesmeyer I, Pellenghar C, Schulz CU, Schmitz C (2002) Mineralogische Analyse röntgenologisch definierter Verkalkungen bei Patienten mit chronischer Tendinosis calcarea der Rotatoren-manschette. Z Orthop Grenzgeb 140:399–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mijovilovich A, Leitenmaier B, Meyer-Klaucke W, Kroneck PMH, Götz B, Küpper H (2009) Complexation and toxicity of copper in higher plants. II. Different mechanisms for copper versus cadmium detoxification in the copper-sensitive cadmium/zinc hypperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype). Plant Physiol 151:715–731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mohanapriya S, Senthilkumar P, Sivakumar S, Dineshkumar M, Subbhuraam CV (2006) Effects of copper sulfate and copper nitrate in aquatic medium on the restoration potencial and accumulation of copper in stem cuttings of the terrestrial medicinal plant, Portulaca oleracea Linn. Environ Monit Assess 121:233–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissues cultures. Physiol Plant 15:473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nian H, Yang ZM, Ahn SJ, Cheng ZJ, Matsumoto H (2002) A comparative study on the aluminium- and copper-induced organic acid exudation from wheat roots. Physiol Plant 116:328–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Prasad MNV (2006) Metallothioneins, metal binding complexes and metal sequestration in plants. In: Prasad MNV (ed) Heavy metal stress in plants. From Biomolecules to ecosystems. Springer Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 47–83Google Scholar
  27. Schöttelndreier M, Norddahl MM, Ström L, Falkengren-Grerup U (2001) Organic acid exudation by wild herbs in response to elevated Al concentrations. Ann Bot 87:769–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Taiz L, Zeiger E (1998) Plant Physiology. Ed. Sinauer Associates Inc. Sunderland, pp 284–345Google Scholar
  29. Yadav S, Chandra R (2011) Heavy metals accumulation and ecophysiological effect on Typha augustifolia L. and Cyperus esculentus L. growing in distillery and tannery effluent polluted natural wetland site, Unnao, India. Environ Earth Sci 62:1235–1243CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lyudmila Lyubenova
    • 1
  • Arnd J. Kuhn
    • 2
  • Agnes Höltkemeier
    • 3
  • Peter Schröder
    • 1
  1. 1.Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Sciences, Research Unit Microbe-Plant InteractionsNeuherbergGermany
  2. 2.Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Bio- and Geosciences (IBG-2: Plant Sciences)JülichGermany
  3. 3.Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Bio- and Geosciences (IBG-3: Agrosphere)JülichGermany

Personalised recommendations