Plant and Soil

, Volume 370, Issue 1–2, pp 59–71 | Cite as

Differential responses of system of rice intensification (SRI) and conventional flooded-rice management methods to applications of nitrogen fertilizer

  • Amod Kumar Thakur
  • Sreelata Rath
  • Krishna Gopal Mandal
Regular Article

Abstract

Background

Rising food demand, slowing productivity growth, poor N-use efficiency in rice, and environmental degradation necessitate the development of more productive, environmentally-sound crop and soil management practices. The system of rice intensification (SRI) has been proposed as a methodology to address these trends. However, it is not known how its modified crop-soil-water management practices affect efficiency of inorganic nitrogen applications.

Methods

Field experiments investigated the impacts of SRI management practices with different N-application rates on grain yield, root growth and activity, uptake of N and its use-efficiency, leaf chlorophyll content, leaf N-concentration, and photosynthetic rate in comparison with standard management practices for transplanted flooded rice (TFR).

Results

Overall, grain yield with SRI was 49 % higher than with TFR, with yield enhanced at every N application dose. N-uptake, use-efficiency, and partial factor productivity from applied N were significantly higher in SRI than TFR. Higher leaf nitrogen and chlorophyll contents during the ripening-stage in SRI plants reflected delayed leaf-senescence, extension of photosynthetic processes, and improved root-shoot activities contributing to increased grain yield.

Conclusions

Rice grown under SRI management used N fertilizer more efficiently due to profuse root development and improved physiological performance resulting in enhanced grain yield compared to traditional flooded rice.

Keywords

Cultivation practices Grain yield Nitrogen use efficiency Oryza sativa Root growth System of rice intensification 

Abbreviations

SRI

System of rice intensification

TFR

Transplanted flooded rice

AWD

Alternate wetting and drying

ANUE

Agronomic nitrogen use efficiency

PFP

Partial factor productivity

CP

Cultivation practice

MG

Milk grain

LR

Late ripening

References

  1. Aparicio V, Costa JL, Zamora M (2008) Nitrate leaching assessment in a long-term experiment under supplementary irrigation in humid Argentina. Agric Water Manag 95:1361–1372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barison N, Uphoff N (2011) Rice yield and its relation to root growth and nutrient-use efficiency in SRI and conventional cultivation: an evaluation Madagascar. Paddy Water Environ 9:65–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cassman KG, Harwood RR (1995) The nature of agricultural systems: food security and environmental balance. Food Policy 20:439–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cassman KG, Peng S, Olk DC, Ladha JK, Reichardt W, Dobermann A, Singh U (1998) Opportunities for increased nitrogen-use efficiency from improved resource management in irrigated rice systems. Field Crops Res 56:7–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chapagain T, Yamaji E (2010) The effects of irrigation method, age of seedling and spacing on crop performance, productivity and water-wise rice production in Japan. Paddy Water Environ 8:81–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. DRD (2006) Rice varieties released/notified during 1996–2005. Directorate of Rice Development, Department of Agriculture and Co-operation, Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India, PatnaGoogle Scholar
  7. Fageria NK (2007) Yield physiology of rice. J Plant Nutr 30:843–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. George T, Ladha JK, Buresh RJ (1993) Nitrate dynamics during the aerobic soil phase in lowland rice-based cropping systems. Soil Sci Soc Am J 57:1526–1532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gomez KA, Gomez AA (1984) Statistical procedure for agricultural research. Wiley, New York, p 680Google Scholar
  10. Hiscox JD, Israelstam R (1979) A method of extraction of chlorophyll from leaf tissue without maceration. Can J Bot 57:1332–1334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. ICAR (2006) Handbook of agriculture, 5th edn. Indian Council of Agriculture Research, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  12. Jiang L, Dai T, Jiang D, Cao W, Gan X, Wei S (2004) Characterizing physiological N-use efficiency as influenced by nitrogen management in three rice cultivars. Field Crops Res 88:239–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ju XT, Xing GX, Chen XP, Zhang SL, Zhang LJ, Liu XJ, Cui ZL, Yin B, Christie P, Zhu ZL, Zhang FS (2009) Reducing environmental risk by improving N management in intensive Chinese agricultural systems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:3041–3046PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kassam A, Stoop W, Uphoff N (2011) Review of SRI modifications in rice crop and water management and research issues for making further improvements in agricultural and water productivity. Paddy Water Environ 9:163–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lin X, Zhou W, Zhu D, Zhang Y (2005) Effect of SWD irrigation on photosynthesis and grain yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Field Crops Res 94:67–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lin X, Zhou W, Zhu D, Chen H, Zhang Y (2006) Nitrogen accumulation, remobilization and partitioning in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under an improved irrigation practice. Field Crops Res 96:448–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Menete MZL, van Es HM, Brito RML, DeGloria SD, Famba S (2008) Evaluation of system of rice intensification (SRI) component practices and their synergies on salt-affected soils. Field Crops Res 109:34–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Naher UA, Othman R, Shamsuddin ZHJ, Saud HM, Ismail MR (2009) Growth enhancement and root colonization of rice seedlings by Rhizobium and Corynebacterium spp. Int J Agric Biol 11:586–590Google Scholar
  19. Ookawa T, Naruoka Y, Sayama A, Hirasawa T (2004) Cytokinin effects on ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and nitrogen partitioning in rice during ripening. Crop Sci 44:2107–2115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Osaki M, Shinano T, Matsumoto M, Zheng T, Tadano T (1997) A root-shoot interaction hypothesis for high productivity of field crops. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 43:1079–1084Google Scholar
  21. Pasuquin E, Lafarge T, Tubana B (2008) Transplanting young seedlings in irrigated rice fields: early and high tiller production enhanced grain yield. Field Crops Res 105:141–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Peng SB, Buresh RJ, Huang JL, Zhong XH, Zou YB, Yang JC, Yang GH, Liu YY, Tang QY, Cui KH, Zhang FS, Doberman A (2010) Improving nitrogen fertilization in rice by site-specific nutrient management: a review. Agron Sustain Dev 30:649–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Samejima H, Kondo M, Ito O, Nozoe T, Shinano T, Osaki M (2004) Root-shoot interaction as a limiting factor of biomass productivity in new tropical rice lines. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 50:545–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. San-oh Y, Mano Y, Ookawa T, Hirasawa T (2004) Comparison of dry matter production and associated characteristics between direct-sown and transplanted rice plants in a submerged paddy field and relationships to planting patterns. Field Crops Res 87:43–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. San-oh Y, Sugiyama T, Yoshita D, Ookawa T, Hirasawa T (2006) The effect of planting pattern on the rate of photosynthesis and related processes during ripening in rice plants. Field Crops Res 96:113–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Satyanarayana A, Thiyagarajan TM, Uphoff N (2007) Opportunities for water saving with higher yield from the system of rice intensification. Irrig Sci 25:99–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Shindo J, Okamoto K, Kawashima H (2006) Prediction of the environmental effects of excess nitrogen caused by increasing food demand with rapid economic growth in eastern Asian countries, 1961–2020. Ecol Model 193:703–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sinha SK, Talati J (2007) Productivity impacts of the system of rice intensification (SRI): a case study in West Bengal, India. Agric Water Manag 87:55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Soejima H, Sugiyama T, Ishihara K (1995) Changes in the chlorophyll contents of leaves and in levels of cytokinins in root exudates during ripening of rice cultivars Nipponbare and Akenohoshi. Plant Cell Physiol 36:1105–1114Google Scholar
  30. Stoop WA (2011) The scientific case for system of rice intensification and its relevance for sustainable crop intensification. Int J Agric Sustain 9:443–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Stoop WA, Uphoff N, Kassam A (2002) A review of agricultural research issue raised by the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) from Madagascar: opportunities for improving system for resource poor farmers. Agric Syst 71:249–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Stoop WA, Adam A, Kassam A (2009) Comparing rice production systems: a challenge for agronomic research and for the dissemination of knowledge-intensive farming practices. Agric Water Manag 96:1491–1501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Thakur AK, Uphoff N, Antony E (2010a) An assessment of physiological effects of system of rice intensification (SRI) practices compared with recommended rice cultivation practices in India. Exp Agric 46:77–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Thakur AK, Rath S, Roychowdhury S, Uphoff N (2010b) Comparative performance of rice with system of rice intensification (SRI) and conventional management using different plant spacings. J Agron Crop Sci 196:146–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Thakur AK, Rath S, Patil DU, Kumar A (2011) Effects on rice plant morphology and physiology of water and associated management practices of the system of rice intensification and their implications for crop performance. Paddy Water Environ 9:13–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tian YH, Bin Y, Yang LZ, Yin SX, Zhu ZL (2007) Nitrogen runoff and leaching losses during rice-wheat rotations in Taihu lake region, china. Pedosphere 17:445–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tong C, Hall CAS, Wang H (2003) Land use change in rice, wheat and maize production in China (1961–1998). Agric Ecosyst Environ 95:523–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Uphoff N, Randriamiharisoa R (2002) Reducing water use in irrigated rice production with the Madagascar system of rice intensification (SRI). In: Bouman BAM (ed) Water-wise rice production. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, pp 151–166Google Scholar
  39. Wang H, Inukai Y, Yamauchi A (2006) Root development and nutrient uptake. Crit Rev Plant Sci 25:279–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wang X, Suo Y, Feng Y, Shohag MJI, Gao J, Zhang Q, Xie S, Lin X (2011) Recovery of 15N-labeled urea and soil nitrogen dynamics as affected by irrigation management and nitrogen application rate in a double rice cropping system. Plant Soil 343:195–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Xie JC (1998) Present situation and prospects for the world’s fertilizer use. Plant Nutr Fert Sci 4:321–330Google Scholar
  42. Yang J, Zhang J (2010) Crop management techniques to enhance harvest index in rice. J Exp Bot 61:3177–3189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yang C, Yang L, Yang Y, Ouyang Z (2004) Rice root growth and nutrient uptake as influenced by organic manure in continuously and alternately flooded paddy soils. Agric Water Manag 70:67–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yang X, Shang Q, Wu P, Liu J, Shen Q, Guo S, Xiong Z (2010) Methane emissions from double rice agriculture under long-term fertilizing systems in Hunan, China. Agric Ecosyst Environ 137:308–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhang H, Xue Y, Wang Z, Yang J, Zhang J (2009) An alternate wetting and moderate soil drying regime improves root and shoot growth in rice. Crop Sci 49:2246–2260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhao LM, Wu LH, Li YS, Lu XH, Zhu DF, Uphoff N (2009) Influence of the system of rice intensification on rice yield and nitrogen and water use efficiency with different N application rates. Exp Agric 45:275–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhao LM, Wu LH, Li YS, Animesh S, Zhu DF, Uphoff N (2010) Comparisons of yield, water use efficiency, and soil microbial biomass as affected by the system of rice intensification. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 41:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhu ZL, Chen DL (2002) Nitrogen fertilizer use in China- contributions to food production, impacts on the environment and best management strategies. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 63:117–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amod Kumar Thakur
    • 1
  • Sreelata Rath
    • 1
  • Krishna Gopal Mandal
    • 1
  1. 1.Directorate of Water ManagementBhubaneswarIndia

Personalised recommendations