Plant and Soil

, Volume 361, Issue 1–2, pp 261–269 | Cite as

Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry as a tool for zinc, iron and selenium analysis in whole grain wheat

  • Nicholas G. Paltridge
  • Paul J. Milham
  • J. Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio
  • Govindan Velu
  • Zarina Yasmin
  • Lachlan J. Palmer
  • Georgia E. Guild
  • James C. R. Stangoulis
Regular Article

Abstract

Background and aims

Crop biofortification programs require fast, accurate and inexpensive methods of identifying nutrient dense genotypes. This study investigated energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) for the measurement of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) and selenium (Se) concentrations in whole grain wheat.

Methods

Grain samples were obtained from existing biofortification programs. Reference Zn, Fe and Se concentrations were obtained using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and/or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). One set of 25 samples was used to calibrate for Zn (19–60 mg kg–1) and Fe (26–41 mg kg–1), with 25 further samples used to calibrate for Se (2–31 mg kg–1 ). Calibrations were validated using an additional 40–50 wheat samples.

Results

EDXRF limits of quantification (LOQ) were estimated as 7, 3 and 2 mg kg–1 for Zn, Fe, and Se, respectively. EDXRF results were highly correlated with ICP-OES or -MS values. Standard errors of EDXRF predictions were ±2.2 mg Zn kg–1, ±2.6 mg Fe kg–1, and ±1.5 mg Se kg–1.

Conclusion

EDXRF offers a fast and economical method for the assessment of Zn, Fe and Se concentration in wheat biofortification programs.

Keywords

XRF EDXRF Biofortification Micronutrient Plant 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was funded by HarvestPlus. We thank Oxford Instruments, Caroline Suster and Neal Robson for help identifying optimal Zn and Fe EDXRF conditions, Waite Analytical Services for ICP-OES and -MS analysis, and Wendy Telfer and Nicholas Collins for helpful suggestions on the manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicholas G. Paltridge
    • 1
  • Paul J. Milham
    • 3
    • 4
  • J. Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio
    • 2
  • Govindan Velu
    • 2
  • Zarina Yasmin
    • 1
  • Lachlan J. Palmer
    • 1
  • Georgia E. Guild
    • 1
  • James C. R. Stangoulis
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Biological SciencesFlinders UniversityAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)Global Wheat ProgramMexico DFMexico
  3. 3.Agriculture NSWRichmondAustralia
  4. 4.College of Science and MedicineUniversity of Western SydneySouth PenrithAustralia

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