Oxidative stress is associated with aluminum toxicity recovery in apex of pea root
- 577 Downloads
Although many studies on the mechanism of Al toxicity and tolerance have been conducted independently, events occurring during the recovery process from Al injury is limited. This study was to investigate Al toxicity recovery mechanism focusing in morphological and physiological aspect.
We investigated the mechanisms underlying Al toxicity recovery in terms of oxidative stress using the pea root apex as a model system.
The accumulation of reactive oxygen species was remarkably high in the root under continued Al treatment but decreased in the recovering root. The superoxide anion exuded in the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) showed a similar tendency with respect to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. A similar pattern of lignin content and superoxide dismutase activity was observed among the treatments, while the increased peroxidation in the root under continued Al treatment did not decline with recovery treatment. A longitudinal section of the root under continued Al treatment showed the accumulation of superoxide anion, lignin and peroxide (H2O2) at the epidermal and outer cortex region where the Al induced injuries, including ruptures, are detected.
Oxidative stress is associated with the mechanism of Al toxicity recovery. The recovery process might include the elongation of the central cylinder as a consequence of the oxidative stress-induced formation of the zonal region (ZR). The results further suggest a plausible role for the ZR in the programmed cell death-like function involved in Al toxicity recovery.
KeywordsAluminum Oxidative stress Pea root Programmed cell death Recovery Toxicity
This research was financially supported through a grant from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology to H.M [Grand-in-Aid for Scientific Research C (2258007)].
- Amenós M, Corrale I, Poschnerieder C, Illés P, Baluška F, Barceló J (2009) Different effects of aluminum on the actin cytoskeleton and brefeldin A-sensitive vesicle recycling in root apex cells of two maize varities differeing in root elongation rate and aluminum tolerance. Plant Cell Physiol 50:528–540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Basu U, Good A, Taylor GJ (2001) Transgenic Brassica napus plants overexpressing aluminium-induced mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase cDNA are resistant to aluminium. Plant Cell Envir 24:1269–1278Google Scholar
- Buchanan BB, Gruissem W, Jones RL (2000) Biochemistry and molecular biology of plants. American Society of Plant Physiologist, RockvilleGoogle Scholar
- Ezaki B, Kiyohara H, Matsumoto H, Nakashima S (2007) Overexpression of an auxilin-like gene (F9E10.5) can suppress Al uptake in roots of Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot 58:442–446Google Scholar
- Liszkay A, Kenk B, Schopfer P (2003) Evidence for the involvement of cell wall peroxidase in the generation of hydroxyl radicals mediating extention growth. Planta 217:658–667Google Scholar
- Matsumoto H, Yamamoto Y (in press) Plant roots under aluminum stress: Toxicity and tolerance. In Plant Roots: The Hidden Half 4th Edition, Amran E and Beeckman T (ed) Taylor and Francis Books, ISBN: 978-1-4398-4648-3Google Scholar
- Navascuis J, P-Rontomé C, Sánchez DH, Staudinger C, Wiankoop S, R-Áivarez R, Becana M (2011) Oxidative stress is a consequence, not a cause, of aluminum toxicity in the forage legume Lotus comiculatus. New Phytol. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03978.X
- Rincón-Zachary M, Teacter ND, Sparks JA, Valster AH, Motes CM, Blancaflor B (2010) Fluorescence reasonance energy transfer-sensitized emission of yellow camereon 3.60 reveals root zone-specific calcium signatures in Arabidopsis in response to aluminum and other trivalent cations. Plant Physiol 152:1442–1458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schofield RMS, Pallon J, Fiskesjö G, Karlsson G, Malmqvist KG (1998) Aluminum and calcium distribution patterns in aluminum-intoxicated roots of Allium cepa do not support the calcium-displacement hypothesis and indicate signal-mediater inhibition of root growth. Planta 205:175–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar