Advertisement

Plant and Soil

, Volume 364, Issue 1–2, pp 55–68 | Cite as

Components of forest soil CO2 efflux estimated from Δ14C values of soil organic matter

  • Mirco RodeghieroEmail author
  • Galina Churkina
  • Cristina Martinez
  • Thomas Scholten
  • Damiano Gianelle
  • Alessandro Cescatti
Regular Article

Abstract

Aims

The partitioning of the total soil CO2 efflux into its two main components: respiration from roots (and root-associated organisms) and microbial respiration (by means of soil organic matter (SOM) and litter decomposition), is a major need in soil carbon dynamics studies in order to understand if a soil is a net sink or source of carbon.

Methods

The heterotrophic component of the CO2 efflux was estimated for 11 forest sites as the ratio between the carbon stocks of different SOM pools and previously published (Δ14C derived) turnover times. The autotrophic component, including root and root-associated respiration, was calculated by subtracting the heterotrophic component from total soil chamber measured CO2 efflux.

Results

Results suggested that, on average, 50.4 % of total soil CO2 efflux was derived from the respiration of the living roots, 42.4 % from decomposition of the litter layers and less than 10 % from decomposition of belowground SOM.

Conclusions

The Δ14C method proved to be an efficient tool by which to partition soil CO2 efflux and quantify the contribution of the different components of soil respiration. However the average calculated heterotrophic respiration was statistically lower compared with two previous studies dealing with soil CO2 efflux partitioning (one performed in the same study area; the other a meta-analysis of soil respiration partitioning). These differences were probably due to the heterogeneity of the SOM fraction and to a sub-optimal choice of the litter sampling period.

Keywords

Soil respiration partitioning Carbon-14 isotope Soil organic matter fractions Forest ecosystems 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Robbert Hakkenberg, Annett Börner, Gerd Gleixner, Martina Mund, Markus Reichstein, and Susan Trumbore for discussion of results. Thanks are due also to Jens-Arne Subke for the pre-review of the paper and for useful suggestions. This study received funding from the EU-CarboDATA project (contract number EVK2CT-1999-00044) and from the Province of Trento, Italy (grant REM DL1060).

References

  1. Bird JA, Torn MS (2006) Fine roots vs. needles: a comparison of 13C and 15N dynamics in a ponderosa pine forest soil. Biogeochemistry 79:361–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bond-Lamberty B, Thomson A (2010) Temperature-associated increases in the global soil respiration record. Nature 464:579–582PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bond-Lamberty B, Wang CK, Gower ST (2004) A global relationship between the heterotrophic and autotrophic components of soil respiration? Glob Chang Biol 10:1756–1766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bowden RD, Nadelhoffer KJ, Boone RD, Melillo JM, Garrison JB (1993) Contributions of aboveground litter, belowground litter and root respiration to total soil respiration in a temperate mixed hardwood forest. Can J For Res 23:1402–1407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Braig E, Tupek B (2010) Separating soil respiration components with stable isotopes: natural abundance and labelling approaches. iForest Biogeosci For 3:92–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bruun S, Six J, Jensen LS, Paustian K (2005) Estimating turnover of soil organic carbon fractions based on radiocarbon measurements. Radiocarbon 47:99–113Google Scholar
  7. Cisneros-Dozal LM, Trumbore S, Hanson PJ (2006) Partitioning sources of soil-respired CO2 and their seasonal variation using a unique radiocarbon tracer. Glob Chang Biol 12:194–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Davidson EA, Janssens IA (2006) Temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition and feedbacks to climate change. Nature 440:165–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gaudinski JB, Trumbore SE, Davidson EA, Zheng SH (2000) Soil carbon cycling in a temperate forest: radiocarbon-based estimates of residence times, sequestration rates and partitioning of fluxes. Biogeochemistry 51:33–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gaudinski JB, Trumbore SE, Davidson EA, Cook AC, Markewitz D, Richter DD (2001) The age of fine-root carbon in three forests of the eastern United States measured by radiocarbon. Oecologia 129:420–429. doi: 10.1007/s004420100746 Google Scholar
  11. Gaudinski JB, Torn MS, Riley WJ, Swanston C, Trumbore SE, Joslin JD, Majdi H, Dawson TE, Hanson PJ (2009) Use of stored carbon reserves in growth of temperate tree roots and leaf buds: analyses using radiocarbon measurements and modelling. Glob Chang Biol 15:992–1014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hakkenberg R, Churkina G, Rodeghiero M, Börner A, Steinhof A, Cescatti A (2008) Temperature sensitivity of the turnover times of soil organic matter in forests. Ecol Appl 18:119–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hansen K, Vesterdal L, Schmidt KI, Gundersen P, Sevel L, Bastrup-Birk A, Pedersen LB, Bille-Hansen J (2009) Litterfall and nutrient return in five tree species in a common garden experiment. For Ecol Manag 257:2133–2144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hanson PJ, Edwards NT, Garten CT, Andrews JA (2000) Separating root and soil microbial contributions to soil respiration: a review of methods and observations. Biogeochemistry 48:115–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Harrison KG (1996) Using bulk soil radiocarbon measurements to estimate soil organic matter turnover times: implications for atmospheric CO2 levels. Radiocarbon 38(2):181–190Google Scholar
  16. Heinemeyer A, Hartley IP, Evans SP, De la Fuente JAC, Ineson P (2007) Forest soil CO2 flux: uncovering the contribution and environmental responses of ectomycorrhizas. Glob Chang Biol 13:1786–1797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Högberg P, Buchmann N, Read DJ (2006) Comments on Yakov Kuzyakov’s review’Sources of CO2 efflux from soil and review of partitioning methods’ [Soil Biol Biochem 38: 425–448]. Soil Biol Biochem 38:2997–2998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. ICP Forest Manual (2003) Part IIIa. Sampling and analysis of soil. Forest Soil Co-ordinating Centre, Institute for Forestry and Game Management, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  19. Keel SG, Siegwolf RTW, Körner C (2006) Canopy CO2 enrichment permits tracing the fate of recently assimilated carbon in a mature deciduous forest. New Phytol 172:319–329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kuzyakov Y (2006) Sources of CO2 efflux from soil and review of partitioning methods. Soil Biol Biochem 38:425–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kuzyakov Y, Gavrichkova O (2010) Time lag between photosynthesis and carbon dioxide efflux from soil: a review of mechanisms and controls. Glob Chang Biol 16(12):3386–3406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kuzyakov Y, Friedel JK, Stahr K (2000) Review of mechanisms and quantification of priming effects. Soil Biol Biochem 32:1485–1498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lavigne MB, Foster RJ, Goodine G (2004) Seasonal and annual changes in soil respiration in relation to soil temperature, water potential and trenching. Tree Physiol 24:415–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lee MS, Nakane K, Nakatsubo T, Koizumi H (2003) Seasonal changes in the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration in a cool-temperate deciduous forest. Plant Soil 255:311–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Levin I, Kromer B (2004) The tropospheric (CO2)-C-14 level in mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (1959–2003). Radiocarbon 46:1261–1272Google Scholar
  26. Millard P, Midwood AJ, Hunt JE, Whitehead D, Boutton TW (2008) Partitioning soil surface CO2 efflux into autotrophic and heterotrophic components, using natural gradients in soil δ13C in an undisturbed savannah soil. Soil Biol Biochem 40:1575–1582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Moyano FE, Kutsch WL, Schulze ED (2007) Response of mycorrhizal, rhizosphere and soil basal respiration to temperature and photosynthesis in a barley field. Soil Biol Biochem 39:843–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Paterson E, Midwood AJ, Millard P (2009) Through the eye of the needle: a review of isotope approaches to quantify microbial processes mediating soil carbon balance. New Phytol 184:19–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Quideau SA, Chadwick OA, Benesi A, Graham RC, Anderson MA (2001) A direct link between forest vegetation type and soil organic matter composition. Geoderma 104:41–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Reichstein M, Beer C (2008) Soil respiration across scales: the importance of a model-data integration framework for data interpretation. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 171:344–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rey A, Pegoraro E, Tedeschi V, De Parri I, Jarvis PG, Valentini R (2002) Annual variation in soil respiration and its components in a coppice oak forest in Central Italy. Glob Chang Biol 8:851–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rodeghiero M, Cescatti A (2005) Main determinants of forest soil respiration along an elevation/temperature gradient in the Italian Alps. Glob Chang Biol 11:1024–1041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rodeghiero M, Cescatti A (2006) Indirect partitioning of soil respiration in a series of evergreen forest ecosystems. Plant Soil 284:7–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rodeghiero M, Heinemeyer A, Schrumpf M, Bellamy P (2009) Determination of soil carbon stocks and cahnges. In: W L Kutsch, M Bahn, A Heinemeyer (eds) Soil carbon dynamics: an integrated methodology. Cambridge University Press, pp. 49–75Google Scholar
  35. Ryan MG, Law BE (2005) Interpreting, measuring, and modeling soil respiration. Biogeochemistry 73:3–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schuur EAG, Trumbore SE (2006) Partitioning sources of soil respiration in boreal black spruce forest using radiocarbon. Glob Chang Biol 12:165–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Smith P, Fang C (2010) A warm response by soils. Nature 464:499–500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. StatSoft, Inc. (2010) STATISTICA (data analysis software system), version 9.1. www.statsoft.com
  39. Stuiver M, Reimer PJ, Braziunas TF (1998) High-precision radiocarbon age calibration for terrestrial and marine samples. Radiocarbon 40:1127–1151Google Scholar
  40. Subke JA, Inglima I, Cotrufo MF (2006) Trends and methodological impacts in soil CO2 efflux partitioning: a metaanalytical review. Glob Chang Biol 12:921–943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tans P (1981) A compilation of bomb 14C data for use in global carbon model calculations. In: Bolin B (ed) Carbon cycle modeling, scope 16. Wiley, New York, pp. 131–157Google Scholar
  42. Torn MS, Trumbore SE, Chadwick OA, Vitousek PM, Hendricks DM (1997) Mineral control of soil organic carbon storage and turnover. Nature 389:170–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Torn MS, Swanston CW, Castanha C, Trumbore SE (2009) Storage and turnover of organic matter in soil. In: Huang PM, Senesi N (eds) Biophysico-chemical processes involving natural nonliving organic matter in environmental systems. John Wiley & Sons, pp. 219–272Google Scholar
  44. Trumbore SE (2000) Age of soil organic matter and soil respiration: radiocarbon constraints on belowground C dynamics. Ecol Appl 10(2):399–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Trumbore S (2006) Carbon respired by terrestrial ecosystems - recent progress and challenges. Glob Chang Biol 12:141–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Trumbore SE, Zheng SH (1996) Comparison of fractionation methods for soil organic matter C-14 analysis. Radiocarbon 38:219–229Google Scholar
  47. Trumbore SE, Chadwick OA, Amundson R (1996) Rapid exchange between soil carbon and atmospheric carbon dioxide driven by temperature change. Science 272:393–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. van Hees PAW, Johansson E, Jones DL (2008) Dynamics of simple carbon compounds in two forest soils as revealed by soil solution concentrations and biodegradation kinetics. Plant Soil 310:11–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zar JH (1996) Biostatistical analysis (third edition). Prentice-Hall International, London. 662 pp. +AppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mirco Rodeghiero
    • 1
    Email author
  • Galina Churkina
    • 2
    • 6
  • Cristina Martinez
    • 3
  • Thomas Scholten
    • 4
  • Damiano Gianelle
    • 1
  • Alessandro Cescatti
    • 5
  1. 1.Sustainable Agro-ecosystems and Bioresources DepartmentIASMA Research and Innovation Centre Fondazione Edmund MachSan Michele all’Adige (TN)Italy
  2. 2.Institute of GeographyHumboldt University of BerlinBerlinGermany
  3. 3.FoxLab, IASMA Research and Innovation CentreFondazione Edmund MachSan Michele All’Adige (TN)Italy
  4. 4.Institute of GeographyUniversity of TübingenTübingenGermany
  5. 5.European Commission - DG Joint Research CentreInstitute for Environment and Sustainability, Climate Change UnitIspraItaly
  6. 6.Max-Planck Institute for BiogeochemistryJenaGermany

Personalised recommendations