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Plant and Soil

, Volume 362, Issue 1–2, pp 319–334 | Cite as

Hyperaccumulators of metal and metalloid trace elements: Facts and fiction

  • Antony van der Ent
  • Alan J. M. Baker
  • Roger D. Reeves
  • A. Joseph Pollard
  • Henk Schat
Regular Article

Abstract

Background

Plants that accumulate metal and metalloid trace elements to extraordinarily high concentrations in their living biomass have inspired much research worldwide during the last decades. Hyperaccumulators have been recorded and experimentally confirmed for elements such as nickel, zinc, cadmium, manganese, arsenic and selenium. However, to date, hyperaccumulation of lead, copper, cobalt, chromium and thallium remain largely unconfirmed. Recent uses of the term in relation to rare-earth elements require critical evaluation.

Scope

Since the mid-1970s the term ‘hyperaccumulator’ has been used millions of times by thousands of people, with varying degrees of precision, aptness and understanding that have not always corresponded with the views of the originators of the terminology and of the present authors. There is therefore a need to clarify the circumstances in which the term ‘hyperaccumulator’ is appropriate and to set out the conditions that should be met when the terms are used. We outline here the main considerations for establishing metal or metalloid hyperaccumulation status of plants, (re)define some of the terminology and note potential pitfalls.

Conclusions

Unambiguous communication will require the international scientific community to adopt standard terminology and methods for confirming the reliability of analytical data in relation to metal and metalloid hyperaccumulators.

Keywords

Hyperaccumulator Metallophyte Trace elements Metal Metalloid Hydroponic experiments Phytoextraction 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antony van der Ent
    • 1
    • 6
  • Alan J. M. Baker
    • 2
  • Roger D. Reeves
    • 3
  • A. Joseph Pollard
    • 4
  • Henk Schat
    • 5
  1. 1.Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation, Sustainable Minerals InstituteThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.School of Botany, The University of Melbourne and Centre for Contaminant GeoscienceEnvironmental Earth Sciences International Pty LtdNorth SydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Palmerston NorthNew Zealand
  4. 4.Department of BiologyFurman UniversityGreenvilleUSA
  5. 5.Department of Genetics, Molecular and Cellular BiologyVrije UniversiteitAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  6. 6.CMLRThe University of QueenslandSt LuciaAustralia

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