Screening of plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria isolated from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)
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Background and Aims
This study was aimed at assessing the diversity of putatively diazotrophic rhizobacteria associated with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cropped in the south of Brazil, and to examine key plant growth promotion (PGP) characteristics of the isolates for the purposes of increasing plant productivity.
299 strains were isolated from the roots and rhizosphere of sunflower cultivated in five different areas using N-free media. 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP and 16S rRNA partial sequencing were used for identification and the Shannon index was used to evaluate bacterial diversity. Production of siderophores and indolic compounds (ICs), as well phosphate solubilization activities of each isolate were also evaluated in vitro. On the basis of multiple PGP activities, eight isolates were selected and tested for their N-fixation ability, and their capacity as potential PGPR on sunflower plants was also assessed.
All except three Gram-positive strains (phylum Actinobacteria) belonged to the Gram-negative Proteobacteria subgroups [Gamma (167), Beta (78), and Alpha (50)] and the family Flavobacteriaceae (1)]. Shannon indexes ranged from 0.96 to 2.13 between the five sampling sites. Enterobacter and Burkholderia were the predominant genera isolated from roots and rhizosphere, respectively. Producers of siderophores and ICs were widely found amongst the isolates, but only 19.8% of them solubilized phosphate. About 8% of the isolates exhibited all three PGP traits, and these mostly belonged to the genus Burkholderia. Four isolates were able to stimulate the growth of sunflower plants under gnotobiotic conditions.
Enterobacter and Burkholderia were the dominant rhizospheric bacterial genera associated with sunflower plants. Inoculation with isolates belonging to the genera Achromobacter, Chryseobacterium, Azospirillum, and Burkholderia had a stimulatory effect on plant growth.
KeywordsSunflower PGPR Diversity Burkholderia Enterobacter
We thank to F. Bered, P. B. Costa and E. Sperb for their contribution to this work. We also thank R. L. M. Weber for his valuable scientific comments. This work was financed by a Grant and fellowships from Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq/Brazil) and INCT da Fixação Biológica do Nitrogênio (Brazil).
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