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Plant and Soil

, Volume 352, Issue 1–2, pp 303–319 | Cite as

Impact of simulated changes in rainfall regime and nutrient deposition on the relative dominance and isotopic composition of ruderal plants in anthropogenic grasslands

  • Pablo García-PalaciosEmail author
  • José I. Querejeta
  • Fernando T. Maestre
  • Adrián Escudero
  • Fernando Valladares
Regular Article

Abstract

Background and aims

Plant productivity in drylands is frequently co-limited by water and nutrient availability, and thus is expected to be influenced by ongoing changes in rainfall regime and atmospheric nutrient deposition. Roadside grasslands are widespread worldwide, represent ecologically meaningful examples of highly dynamic anthropogenic ecosystems, and are well suited to investigate global change effects on plant performance. We evaluated the effects of changes in water and nutrient availability on the relative dominance and physiological performance of Bromus rubens, Carduus tenuifolius and Melilotus officinalis, which belong to contrasting functional groups (grasses, non-legume forbs and legumes, respectively).

Methods

We conducted a factorial field experiment in two semiarid roadside grasslands in central Spain with the following factors: watering (no water addition vs. watering with 50% of the monthly total precipitation median) and fertilization (no fertilization vs. addition of 80 kg N ha−1 year−1). The cover of the species evaluated, was surveyed over a 2-year period. Plant isotopic composition (leaf δ13C and δ18O) and nutrient concentrations (foliar N, P and K) were used to assess plant ecophysiological performance.

Results

Carduus was able to cope with lower water availability levels through stomatal adjustments without a significant reduction in its relative dominance. The relative dominance of Bromus was negatively affected by even moderate water stress, although elevated nutrient deposition buffered the adverse impact of drought through a nutrient-mediated enhancement of plant water use efficiency. Increased nutrient availability strongly decreased the relative dominance of Melilotus, irrespective of water availability.

Conclusions

Species-specific physiological mechanisms of adjustment to treatments suggest that plant communities in roadside grasslands will not respond as a unit to global environmental change. The characterization of species-specific responses to major global change drivers may improve predictions about the future dynamics of plant communities in novel ecosystems such as roadside slopes.

Keywords

1318Foliar nutrients Drought Nutrient deposition Global change Ruderal species Roadside grasslands 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We wish to thank Santiago Soliveres for his useful comments and corrections on a previous version of this manuscript. Virginia Sanz, Cristina Alcala and Enrique Pigem helped during the field and laboratory work. PGP was supported by a PhD fellowship from Proyecto Expertal, funded by Fundación Biodiversidad and CINTRA. FTM is supported by the European Research Council under the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013)/ERC Grant agreement n° 242658 (BIOCOM). JIQ is supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science (CGL2010-21064). This research was supported by the EXPERTAL, EFITAL (B007/2007/3-10.2) and REMEDINAL (S0505/AMB/0335) projects, funded by Fundación Biodiversidad-Cintra S.A., Ministerio de Medio Ambiente and the Comunidad de Madrid, respectively.

Supplementary material

11104_2011_998_MOESM1_ESM.doc (92 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 92 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pablo García-Palacios
    • 1
    Email author
  • José I. Querejeta
    • 2
  • Fernando T. Maestre
    • 1
  • Adrián Escudero
    • 1
  • Fernando Valladares
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Departamento de Biología y Geología, Área de Biodiversidad y Conservación, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y TecnologíaUniversidad Rey Juan CarlosMóstolesSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de Conservación de Suelos y Aguas, Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura, CSIC, Campus Universitario de EspinardoMurciaSpain
  3. 3.Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, MNCN, CSICMadridSpain

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