Advancing the use of minirhizotrons in wetlands
- 768 Downloads
Wetlands store a substantial amount of carbon (C) in deep soil organic matter deposits, and play an important role in global fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane. Fine roots (i.e., ephemeral roots that are active in water and nutrient uptake) are recognized as important components of biogeochemical cycles in nutrient-limited wetland ecosystems. However, quantification of fine-root dynamics in wetlands has generally been limited to destructive approaches, possibly because of methodological difficulties associated with the unique environmental, soil, and plant community characteristics of these systems. Non-destructive minirhizotron technology has rarely been used in wetland ecosystems.
Our goal was to develop a consensus on, and a methodological framework for, the appropriate installation and use of minirhizotron technology in wetland ecosystems. Here, we discuss a number of potential solutions for the challenges associated with the deployment of minirhizotron technology in wetlands, including minirhizotron installation and anchorage, capture and analysis of minirhizotron images, and upscaling of minirhizotron data for analysis of biogeochemical pools and parameterization of land surface models.
The appropriate use of minirhizotron technology to examine relatively understudied fine-root dynamics in wetlands will advance our knowledge of ecosystem C and nutrient cycling in these globally important ecosystems.
KeywordsFine roots Minirhizotron Wetlands Peatlands Methodology
This paper was developed from a workshop held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in October, 2010 to facilitate discussion on minirhizotron use to examine fine-root dynamics in wetlands. The authors do not have a financial interest in the commercial products discussed here. We thank the New Phytologist Trust and the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research for sponsoring the workshop. We also thank R. Norby and anonymous reviewers for comments that improved the manuscript. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC for the United States Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.
- Aerts R, Berendse F, Klerk NM, Bakker C (1989) Root production and root turnover in two dominant species of wet heathlands. Oecologia 81:374–378Google Scholar
- Baird AJ, Belyea LR, Morris PJ (2009) Upscaling of peatland-atmosphere fluxes of methane: Small-scale heterogeneity in process rates and the pitfalls of “bucket-and-slab” models. In: Baird AJ, Belyea LR, Comas X, Reeve AS, Slater LD (eds) Carbon cycling in northern peatlands. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., pp 37–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Burns RM, Honkala BH (technical coordinators) (1990) Black spruce. In: Silvics of North America, USDA Forest Service Agricultural Handbook. US Department of Agriculture, Washington DC, pp 227–237Google Scholar
- Dickinson SB (2007) Influences of soil amendments and microtopography on vegetation at a created tidal freshwater swamp in southeastern Virginia. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA, MS thesisGoogle Scholar
- Dyer D, Brown DA (1980) In-situ root observation using fiber optic, video and fluorescence. In Agron Abstr p. 80, Madison, WIGoogle Scholar
- Jackson RB, Schenk HJ, Jobbagy EG, Canadell J, Colello GD, Dickinson RE, Field CB, Friedlingstein P, Heimann M, Hibbard K, Kicklighter DW, Kleidon A, Neilson RP, Parton WJ, Sala OE, Sykes MT (2000) Belowground consequences of vegetation change and their treatment in models. Ecol Appl 10:470–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mitsch WJ, Gosselink JG (1986) Wetlands. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Sloan V (2010) Plant roots in arctic ecosystems: Stocks and dynamics, and their coupling to above-ground parameters. PhD thesis, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UKGoogle Scholar
- Upchurch DR (1985) Relationship between observations in mini-rhizotrons and true root length density. PhD thesis, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USAGoogle Scholar
- Zadworny M, Eissenstat DM (2011) Contrasting the morphology, anatomy and fungal colonization of new pioneer and fibrous roots. New Phytologist In pressGoogle Scholar