Plant and Soil

, Volume 346, Issue 1–2, pp 1–14 | Cite as

Root hairs: development, growth and evolution at the plant-soil interface

  • Sourav Datta
  • Chul Min Kim
  • Monica Pernas
  • Nuno D. Pires
  • Hélène Proust
  • Thomas Tam
  • Priya Vijayakumar
  • Liam Dolan
Marschner Review


Root hairs are tip-growing extensions from root epidermal cells that play important roles in nutrient uptake and in plant-soil interactions. In this review, we discuss the major environmental, physiological and genetic factors that regulate the differentiation and growth of root hairs in angiosperms. Root hair cells are arranged in a number of different patterns in the root epidermis of different species. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.), a striped pattern of hair and non-hair files is generated by an intercellular gene regulatory network that involves feedback loops and protein movement between neighbouring cells. The growth of root hairs can be broadly divided into an initiation phase, where site selection and bulge formation take place, and an elongation phase. The initiation phase is regulated by different transcription factors, GTPases and cell wall modification enzymes. During the elongation phase root hairs grow by tip growth, a type of polarised cell expansion that is restricted to the growing apex. Root hair elongation is characterized by a strong polarisation of the cytoskeleton, active cell wall modifications and dynamic ion movements. Finally, we discuss the functional and genetic similarities between the root hairs of angiosperms and the rhizoids of bryophytes and ferns.


Root hair Rhizoid Epidermal patterning Cell differentiation Tip growth 



Our research in this area is funded by the European Research Council Advanced Grant program (EVO500), European Union Research Training Network (PLANTORIGINS), a responsive mode grant from the Biotechnology and Biology Research Council, a European Molecular Biology Organisation long term fellowship (SD), a European Union Marie Curie Mobility fellowship (SD), the Clarendon Fund of Oxford University (TT), Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (Portugal) (NDP), and the Ministerio de Education y Ciencia (MP). All of these funding sources are gratefully acknowledged.


  1. Abdolzadeh A, Wang X, Veneklaas EJ, Lambers H (2010) Effects of phosphorus supply on growth, phosphate concentration and cluster-root formation in three Lupinus species. Ann Bot 105:365–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrews M (1987) Phosphate uptake by the components parts of Chara hipsida. Br Phycol J 22:49–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. APG III (2009) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Bot J Linn Soc 161:105–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Badri DV, Vivanco JM (2009) Regulation and function of root exudates. Plant Cell Environ 32:666–681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bais HP, Weir TL, Perry LG, Gilroy S, Vivanco JM (2006) The role of root exudates in rhizosphere interactions with plants and other organisms. Annu Rev Plant Biol 57:233–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baluska F, Salaj J, Mathur J, Braun M, Jasper F, Samaj J, Chua N-H, Barlow PW, Volkmann D (2000) Root hair formation: F-actin-dependent tip growth is initiated by local assembly of profilin-supported F-actin meshworks accumulated within expansin-enriched bulges. Dev Biol 227:618–632PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Banks JA (2009) Selaginella and 400 million years of separation. Annu Rev Plant Biol 60:223–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bates TR, Lynch JP (1996) Stimulation of root hair elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana by low phosphorus availability. Plant Cell Environ 19:529–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bates TR, Lynch JP (2000) Plant growth and phosphorus accumulation of wild type and two root hair mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae). Am J Bot 87:958–963PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baumberger N, Ringli C, Keller B (2001) The chimeric leucine-rich repeat/extensin cell wall protein LRX1 is required for root hair morphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Gen Dev 15:1128–1139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berger F, Haseloff J, Schiefelbein J, Dolan L (1998) Positional information in root epidermis is defined during embryogenesis and acts in domains with strict boundaries. Curr Biol 8:421–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bernhardt C, Lee MM, Gonzalez A, Zhang F, Lloyd A, Schiefelbein J (2003) The bHLH genes GLABRA3 (GL3) and ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (EGL3) specify epidermal cell fate in the Arabidopsis root. Development 130:6431–6439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bernhardt C, Zhao M, Gonzalez A, Lloyd A, Schiefelbein J (2005) The bHLH genes GL3 and EGL3 participate in an intercellular regulatory circuit that controls cell patterning in the Arabidopsis root epidermis. Development 132:291–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bibikova TN, Zhigilei A, Gilroy S (1997) Root hair growth in Arabidopsis thaliana is directed by calcium and an endogenous polarity. Planta 203:495–505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bibikova TN, Jacob T, Dahse I, Gilroy S (1998) Localized changes in apoplastic and cytoplasmic pH are associated with root hair development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Development 125:2925–2934PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bibikova TN, Blancaflor EB, Gilroy S (1999) Microtubules regulate tip growth and orientation in root hairs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J 17:657–665PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Box RJ (1986) Quantitative short-term uptake of inorganic-phosphate by the chara-hispida rhizoid. Plant Cell Environ 9:501–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bruce J (1976) Comparative studies in the biology of Lycopodium carolinianum. Am Fern J 66:125–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bünning E (1951) Über die Differenzierungsvorgänge in der Cruciferenwurzel. Planta 39:126–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Caro E, Castellano MM, Gutierrez C (2007) A chromatin link that couples cell division to root epidermis patterning in Arabidopsis. Nature 447:213–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carol RJ, Dolan L (2002) Building a hair: tip growth in Arabidopsis thaliana root hairs. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 357:815–821PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carol RJ, Takeda S, Linstead P, Durrant MC, Kakesova H, Derbyshire P, Drea S, Zarsky V, Dolan L (2005) A RhoGDP dissociation inhibitor spatially regulates growth in root hair cells. Nature 438:1013–1016PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cho HT, Cosgrove DJ (2002) Regulation of root hair initiation and expansin gene expression in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 14:3237–3253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Clowes F (2000) Pattern in root meristem development in angiosperms. New Phytol 146:83–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cormack RGH (1937) The development of root hairs by Elodea canadensis. New Phytol 36:19–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cormack RGH (1947) A comparative study of developing epidermal cells in white mustard and tomato roots. Am J Bot 34:310–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Costa S, Dolan L (2003) Epidermal patterning genes are active during embryogenesis in Arabidopsis. Development 130:2893–2901PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Costa S, Shaw P (2006) Chromatin organization and cell fate switch respond to positional information in Arabidopsis. Nature 439:493–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Crandall-Stotler B, Stotler RE, Long DG (2008) Morphology and classification of the Marchantiophyta. In: Goffinet B, Shaw AJ (eds) Bryophyte biology. Cambridge, pp 1–54Google Scholar
  30. Cutter E, Feldman L (1970) Trichoblasts in Hydrocharis. I. Origin, differentiation, dimensions and growth. Am J Bot 57:190–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cutter EG, Hung CY (1972) Symmetric and asymmetric mitosis and cytokinesis in the root tip of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L. J Cell Sci 11:723–737PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Czarnota MA, Paul RN, Weston LA, Duke SO (2003) Anatomy of sorgoleone-secreting root hairs of Sorghum species. Int J Plant Sci 164:861–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dakora FD, Phillips DA (2002) Root exudates as mediators of mineral acquisition in low-nutrient environments. Plant Soil 245:35–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Desbrosses G, Josefsson C, Rigas S, Hatzopoulos P, Dolan L (2003) AKT1 and TRH1 are required during root hair elongation in Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot 54:781–788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Di Cristina M, Sessa G, Dolan L, Linstead P, Baima S, Ruberti I, Morelli G (1996) The Arabidopsis Athb-10 (GLABRA2) is an HD-Zip protein required for regulation of root hair development. Plant J 10:393–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ding W, Yu Z, Tong Y, Huang W, Chen H, Wu P (2009) A transcription factor with a bHLH domain regulates root hair development in rice. Cell Res 19:1309–1311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dittmer HJ (1937) A quantitative study of the roots and root hairs of a winter rye plant (Secale creale). Am J Bot 24:417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dittmer HJ (1949) Root hair variations in plant species. Am J Bot 36:152–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dittmer HJ, Reinhart J (1948) Root hair development on Gymnosperm seedlings. Am J Bot 35:791Google Scholar
  40. Dolan L (1996) Pattern in the root epidermis: an interplay of diffusible signals and cellular geometry. Ann Bot 77:547–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dolan L (2001) The role of ethylene in root hair growth in Arabidopsis. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 164:141–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dolan L, Costa S (2001) Evolution and genetics of root hair stripes in the root epidermis. J Exp Bot 52:413–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Dolan L, Roberts K (1995) The development of cell pattern in the root epidermis. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 350:95–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dolan L, Duckett CM, Grierson C, Linstead P, Schneider K, Lawson E, Dean C, Poethig S, Roberts K (1994) Clonal relationships and cell patterning in the root epidermis of Arabidopsis. Development 120:2465–2474Google Scholar
  45. Edwards D (1986) Aglaophyton major, a non-vascular land-plant from the Devonian Rhynie Chert. Bot J Linn Soc 93:173–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Favery B, Ryan E, Foreman J, Linstead P, Boudonck K, Steer M, Shaw P, Dolan L (2001) KOJAK encodes a cellulose synthase-like protein required for root hair cell morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. Genes Dev 15:79–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fischer U, Ikeda Y, Ljung K, Serralbo O, Singh M, Heidstra R, Palme K, Scheres B, Grebe M (2006) Vectorial information for Arabidopsis planar polarity is mediated by combined AUX1, EIN2, and GNOM activity. Curr Biol 16:2143–2149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Foehse D, Jungk A (1983) Influence of phosphate and nitrate supply on root hair formation of rape, spinach and tomato plants. Plant Soil 74:359–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Foreman J, Dolan L (2001) Root hairs as a model system for studying plant cell growth. Ann Bot 88:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Foreman J, Demidchik V, Bothwell JHF, Mylona P, Miedema H, Torres MA, Linstead P, Costa S, Brownlee C, Jones JDG, Davies JM, Dolan L (2003) Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase regulate plant cell growth. Nature 422:442–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gahoonia TS, Nielsen NE (2003) Phosphorus (P) uptake and growth of a root hairless barley mutant (bald root barley, brb) and wild type in low- and high-P soils. Plant Cell Environ 26:1759–1766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gahoonia TS, Care D, Nielsen NE (1997) Root hairs and phosphorus acquisition of wheat and barley cultivars. In: Plant soil. Springer, Netherlands, pp 181-188-188Google Scholar
  53. Galway ME, Masucci JD, Lloyd AM, Walbot V, Davis RW, Schiefelbein JW (1994) The TTG gene is required to specify epidermal cell fate and cell patterning in the Arabidopsis root. Dev Biol 166:740–754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gaymard F, Cerutti M, Horeau C, Lemaillet G, Urbach S, Ravallec M, Devauchelle G, Sentenac H, Thibaud J-B (1996) The baculovirus/insect cell system as an alternative to Xenopus oocytes: First characterization of the AKT1 K+ channel from Arabidopsis Thaliana. J Biol Chem 271:22863–22870PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Goffinet B, Buck WR, Shaw AJ (2008) Morphology, anatomy, and classification of the Bryophyta. In: Goffinet B, Shaw AJ (eds) Bryophyte biology. CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  56. Graham LE, Graham JM, Wilcox L (2009) Algae. Pearson Bejamin Cummings, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  57. Grebe M, Friml J, Swarup R, Ljung K, Sandberg G, Terlou M, Palme K, Bennett MJ, Scheres B (2002) Cell polarity signaling in Arabidopsis involves a BFA-sensitive auxin influx pathway. Curr Biol 12:329–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hogh-Jensen H, Pedersen M (2003) Morphological plasticity by crop plants and their potassium use efficiency. J Plant Nutr 26:969–984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ikeda Y, Men S, Fischer U, Stepanova AN, Alonso JM, Ljung K, Grebe M (2009) Local auxin biosynthesis modulates gradient-directed planar polarity in Arabidopsis. Nat Cell Biol 11:731–738PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ishida T, Kurata T, Okada K, Wada T (2008) A genetic regulatory network in the development of trichomes and root hairs. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:365–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jones MA, Shen JJ, Fu Y, Li H, Yang Z, Grierson CS (2002) The Arabidopsis Rop2 GTPase is a positive regulator of both root hair initiation and tip growth. Plant Cell 14:763–776PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jones AR, Kramer EM, Knox K, Swarup R, Bennett MJ, Lazarus CM, Leyser HMO, Grierson CS (2009) Auxin transport through non-hair cells sustains root-hair development. Nat Cell Biol 11:78–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jungk A (2001) Root hairs and the acquisition of plant nutrients from soil. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 164:121–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Karas B, Amyot L, Johansen C, Sato S, Tabata S, Kawaguchi M, Szczyglowski K (2009) Conservation of lotus and Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix proteins reveals new players in root hair development. Plant Physiol 151:1175–1185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ketelaar T, Faivre-Moskalenko C, Esseling JJ, de Ruijter NCA, Grierson CG, Dogterom M, Emons AMC (2002) Positioning of nuclei in Arabidopsis root hairs. Plant Cell 14:2941–2955PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ketelaar T, de Ruijter NCA, Emons AMC (2003) Unstable F-actin specifies the area and microtubule direction of cell expansion in Arabidopsis root hairs. Plant Cell 15:285–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kim EJ, Kwak JM, Uozumi N, Schroeder JI (1998) AtKUP1: an Arabidopsis gene encoding high-affinity potassium transport activity. Plant Cell 10:51–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kim CM, Park SH, Je BI, Park SH, Park SJ, Piao HL, Eun MY, Dolan L, C-d H (2007) OsCSLD1, a cellulose synthase-like D1 gene. Is required for root hair morphogenesis in rice. Plant Physiol 143:1220–1230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kirik V, Simon M, Huelskamp M, Schiefelbein J (2004) The ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 gene acts redundantly with TRIPTYCHON and CAPRICE in trichome and root hair cell patterning in Arabidopsis. Dev Biol 268:506–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Knox K, Grierson CS, Leyser O (2003) AXR3 and SHY2 interact to regulate root hair development. Development 130:5769–5777PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kurata T, Ishida T, Kawabata-Awai C, Noguchi M, Hattori S, Sano R, Nagasaka R, Tominaga R, Koshino-Kimura Y, Kato T, Sato S, Tabata S, Okada K, Wada T (2005) Cell-to-cell movement of the CAPRICE protein in Arabidopsis root epidermal cell differentiation. Development 132:5387–5398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kwak S-H, Schiefelbein J (2007) The role of the SCRAMBLED receptor-like kinase in patterning the Arabidopsis root epidermis. Dev Biol 302:118–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kwak S-H, Schiefelbein J (2008) A feedback mechanism controlling SCRAMBLED receptor accumulation and cell-type pattern in Arabidopsis. Curr Biol 18:1949–1954PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kwak S-H, Shen R, Schiefelbein J (2005) Positional signaling mediated by a receptor-like kinase in Arabidopsis. Science 307:1111–1113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Leavitt RG (1904) Trichomes of the root in vascular cryptogams and angiosperms. Proc Boston Soc Nat Hist 31:273–313Google Scholar
  76. Lee MM, Schiefelbein J (1999) WEREWOLF, a MYB-related protein in Arabidopsis, is a position-dependent regulator of epidermal cell patterning. Cell 99:473–483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lee MM, Schiefelbein J (2002) Cell pattern in the Arabidopsis root epidermis determined by lateral inhibition with feedback. Plant Cell 14:611–618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lewis L, McCourt R (2004) Green algae and the origin of land plants. Am J Bot 91:1535–1556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Libault M, Brechenmacher L, Cheng J, Xu D, Stacey G (2010) Root hair systems biology. Trends Plant Sci 15:641–650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Macpherson N, Takeda S, Shang Z, Dark A, Mortimer J, Brownlee C, Dolan L, Davies J (2008) NADPH oxidase involvement in cellular integrity. Planta 227:1415–1418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Masucci JD, Rerie WG, Foreman DR, Zhang M, Galway ME, Marks MD, Schiefelbein JW (1996) The homeobox gene GLABRA2 is required for position-dependent cell differentiation in the root epidermis of Arabidopsis thaliana. Development 122:1253–1260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Menand B, Yi K, Jouannic S, Hoffmann L, Ryan E, Linstead P, Schaefer DG, Dolan L (2007) An ancient mechanism controls the development of cells with a rooting function in land plants. Science 316:1477–1480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Molendijk AJ, Bischoff F, Rajendrakumar CS, Friml J, Braun M, Gilroy S, Palme K (2001) Arabidopsis thaliana Rop GTPases are localized to tips of root hairs and control polar growth. EMBO J 20:2779–2788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Monshausen GB, Bibikova TN, Messerli MA, Shi C, Gilroy S (2007) Oscillations in extracellular pH and reactive oxygen species modulate tip growth of Arabidopsis root hairs. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:20996–21001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Monshausen GB, Messerli MA, Gilroy S (2008) Imaging of the Yellow Cameleon 3.6 indicator reveals that elevations in cytosolic Ca2+ follow oscillating increases in growth in root hairs of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 147:1690–1698PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Muller M, Schmidt W (2004) Environmentally induced plasticity of root hair development in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 134:409–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Nishimura T, Yokota E, Wada T, Shimmen T, Okada K (2003) An Arabidopsis ACT2 dominant-negative mutation, which disturbs F-actin polymerization, reveals its distinctive function in root development. Plant Cell Physiol 44:1131–1140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Nishitani K, Tominaga R (1992) Endo-xyloglucan transferase, a novel class of glycosyltransferase that catalyzes transfer of a segment of xyloglucan molecule to another xyloglucan molecule. J Biol Chem 267:21058–21064PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Oldroyd GED, Downie JA (2008) Coordinating nodule morphogenesis with rhizobial infection in legumes. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:519–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Parton R, Dyer A, Read N, Trewavas A (2000) Apical structure of actively growing fern rhizoids examined by DIC and confocal microscopy. Ann Bot-London 85:233–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Pearson H (1969) Rhizoids and root hairs of ferns. Am Fern J 59:107–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pemberton LMS, Tsai S-L, Lovell PH, Harris PJ (2001) Epidermal patterning in seedling roots of eudicotyledons. Ann Bot 87:649–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pitts RJ, Cernac A, Estelle M (1998) Auxin and ethylene promote root hair elongation in Arabidopsis. Plant J 16:553–560PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Reeder JR, von Maltzahn K (1953) Taxonomic significance of root-hair development in the gramineae. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 39:593–598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Renzaglia KS, Villareal JC, Duff JR (2008) New insights into morphology, anatomy, and systemics of hornworts. In: Goffinet B, Shaw AJ (eds) Bryophyte biology. CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  96. Rerie WG, Feldmann KA, Marks MD (1994) The GLABRA2 gene encodes a homeo domain protein required for normal trichome development in Arabidopsis. Genes Dev 8:1388–1399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rigas S, Debrosses G, Haralampidis K, Vicente-Agullo F, Feldmann KA, Grabov A, Dolan L, Hatzopoulos P (2001) TRH1 encodes a potassium transporter required for tip growth in Arabidopsis root hairs. Plant Cell 13:139–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Ringli C, Baumberger N, Diet A, Frey B, Keller B (2002) ACTIN2 is essential for bulge site selection and tip growth during root hair development of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 129:1464–1472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Row HC, Reeder JR (1957) Root-hair development as evidence of relationships among genera of Gramineae. Am J Bot 44:596–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ryu KH, Kang YH, Y-h P, Hwang I, Schiefelbein J, Lee MM (2005) The WEREWOLF MYB protein directly regulates CAPRICE transcription during cell fate specification in the Arabidopsis root epidermis. Development 132:4765–4775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Savage NS, Walker T, Wieckowski Y, Schiefelbein J, Dolan L, Monk NAM (2008) A mutual support mechanism through intercellular movement of CAPRICE and GLABRA3 can pattern the Arabidopsis root epidermis. PLoS Biol 6:e235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Schellmann S, Schnittger A, Kirik V, Wada T, Okada K, Beermann A, Thumfahrt J, Jurgens G, Hulskamp M (2002) TRIPTYCHON and CAPRICE mediate lateral inhibition during trichome and root hair patterning in Arabidopsis. EMBO J 21:5036–5046PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Schiefelbein J (2003) Cell-fate specification in the epidermis: a common patterning mechanism in the root and shoot. Curr Opin Plant Biol 6:74–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Schiefelbein J, Kwak S-H, Wieckowski Y, Barron C, Bruex A (2009) The gene regulatory network for root epidermal cell-type pattern formation in Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot 60:1515–1521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Schmidt W, Schikora A (2001) Different pathways are involved in phosphate and iron stress-induced alterations of root epidermal cell development. Plant Physiol 125:2078–2084PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Schmidt W, Tittel J, Schikora A (2000) Role of hormones in the induction of iron deficiency responses in Arabidopsis roots. Plant Physiol 122:1109–1118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Shane MW, Dixon KW, Lambers H (2005) The occurrence of dauciform roots amongst Western Australian reeds, rushes and sedges, and the impact of phosphorus supply on dauciform-root development in Schoenus unispiculatus (Cyperaceae). New Phytol 165:887–898PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Simon M, Lee MM, Lin Y, Gish L, Schiefelbein J (2007) Distinct and overlapping roles of single-repeat MYB genes in root epidermal patterning. Dev Biol 311:566–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Sinnott EW, Bloch R (1939) Cell polarity and the differentiation of root hairs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 25:248–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Takeda S, Gapper C, Kaya H, Bell E, Kuchitsu K, Dolan L (2008) Local positive feedback regulation determines cell shape in root hair cells. Science 319:1241–1244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Tominaga R, Iwata M, Okada K, Wada T (2007) Functional analysis of the epidermal-specific MYB Genes CAPRICE and WEREWOLF in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 19:2264–2277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Tsai S-L, Harris PJ, Lovell PH (2003) The root epidermis of Echium plantagineum L.: a novel type of pattern based on the distribution of short and long root hairs. Planta 217:238–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Van Hengel AJ, Barber C, Roberts K (2004) The expression patterns of arabinogalactan-protein AtAGP30 and GLABRA2 reveal a role for abscisic acid in the early stages of root epidermal patterning. Plant J 39:70–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Vermeer CP, Escher M, Portielje R, de Klein JJM (2003) Nitrogen uptake and translocation by Chara. Aquat Bot 76:245–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Véry A-A, Davies JM (2000) Hyperpolarization-activated calcium channels at the tip of Arabidopsis root hairs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:9801–9806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wada T, Tachibana T, Shimura Y, Okada K (1997) Epidermal cell differentiation in Arabidopsis determined by a Myb Homolog, CPC. Science 277:1113–1116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wada T, Kurata T, Tominaga R, Koshino-Kimura Y, Tachibana T, Goto K, Marks MD, Shimura Y, Okada K (2002) Role of a positive regulator of root hair development, CAPRICE, in Arabidopsis root epidermal cell differentiation. Development 129:5409–5419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Walker AR, Davison PA, Bolognesi-Winfield AC, James CM, Srinivasan N, Blundell TL, Esch JJ, Marks MD, Gray JC (1999) The TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 locus, which regulates trichome differentiation and anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, encodes a WD40 repeat protein. Plant Cell 11:1337–1350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wang L, Liao H, Yan X, Zhuang B, Dong Y (2004) Genetic variability for root hair traits as related to phosphorus status in soybean. Plant Soil 261:77–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Xu C-R, Liu C, Wang Y-L, Li L-C, Chen W-Q, Xu Z-H, Bai S-N (2005) Histone acetylation affects expression of cellular patterning genes in the Arabidopsis root epidermis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:14469–14474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Yan X, Liao H, Beebe SE, Blair MW, Lynch JP (2004) QTL mapping of root hair and acid exudation traits and their relationship to phosphorus uptake in common bean. Plant Soil 265:17–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Yi K, Menand B, Bell E, Dolan L (2010) A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor controls cell growth and size in root hairs. Nat Genet 42:264–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Yoshida Y, Sano R, Wada T, Takabayashi J, Okada K (2009) Jasmonic acid control of GLABRA3 links inducible defense and trichome patterning in Arabidopsis. Development 136:1039–1048PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Zhang YJ, Lynch JP, Brown KM (2003) Ethylene and phosphorus availability have interacting yet distinct effects on root hair development. J Exp Bot 54:2351–2361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Zhu J, Kaeppler SM, Lynch JP (2005) Mapping of QTL controlling root hair length in maize (Zea mays L.) under phosphorus deficiency. Plant Soil 270:299–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Zhu C, Gan L, Shen Z, Xia K (2006) Interactions between jasmonates and ethylene in the regulation of root hair development in Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot 57:1299–1308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sourav Datta
    • 1
  • Chul Min Kim
    • 1
  • Monica Pernas
    • 1
  • Nuno D. Pires
    • 1
  • Hélène Proust
    • 1
  • Thomas Tam
    • 1
  • Priya Vijayakumar
    • 1
  • Liam Dolan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant SciencesUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations