Advertisement

Plant and Soil

, Volume 333, Issue 1–2, pp 287–299 | Cite as

Morphological and architectural development of root systems in sorghum and maize

  • Vijaya Singh
  • Erik J. van Oosterom
  • David R. Jordan
  • Carlos D. Messina
  • Mark Cooper
  • Graeme L. Hammer
Regular Article

Abstract

Root systems determine the capacity of a plant to access soil water and their architecture can influence adaptation to water-limited conditions. It may be possible to associate that architecture with root attributes of young plants as a basis for rapid phenotypic screening. This requires improved understanding of root system development. This study aimed to characterise the morphological and architectural development of sorghum and maize root systems by (i) clarifying the initiation and origin of roots at germination, and (ii) monitoring and quantifying the development of root systems in young plants. Three experiments were conducted with two maize and four sorghum hybrids. Sorghum produced a sole seminal (primary) root and coleoptile nodal roots emerged at the 4th–5th leaf stage, whereas maize produced 3–7 seminal (primary and scutellum) roots and coleoptile nodal roots emerged at the 2nd leaf stage. Genotypic variation in the flush angle and mean diameter of nodal roots was observed and could be considered a suitable target for large scale screening for root architecture in breeding populations. Because of the relatively late appearance of nodal roots in sorghum, such screening would require a small chamber system to grow plants until at least 6 leaves had fully expanded.

Keywords

Nodal root Root angle Root architecture Scutellum Seminal root 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research formed part of a collaborative research project funded by the participating organisations and the Australian Research Council (ARC) through ARC-linkage project LP0560484.

References

  1. Aloni R, Griffith M (1991) Functional xylem anatomy in root-shoot junctions of six cereal species. Planta 184:123–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson SR, Lauer MJ, Schoper JB, Shibles RM (2004) Pollination timing effects on kernel set and silk receptivity in four maize hybrids. Crop Sci 44:464–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bengough AG, Gordon DC, Al-Menaie H, Ellis RP, Allan D, Keith R, Thomas WTB, Forster BP (2004) Gel observation chamber for rapid screening of root traits in cereal seedlings. Plant Soil 262:63–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blum A, Arkin GF, Jordan WR (1977a) Sorghum root morphogenesis and growth. I. Effects of maturity genes. Crop Sci 17:149–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blum A, Arkin GF, Jordan WR (1977b) Sorghum root morphogenesis and growth. II. Manifestation of heterosis. Crop Sci 17:153–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blum A, Ritchie JT (1984) Effect of soil surface water content on sorghum root distribution in the soil. Field Crops Res 8:169–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Borrell AK, Hammer GL, Douglas ACL (2000) Does maintaining green leaf area in sorghum improve yield under drought? 1. Leaf growth and senescence. Crop Sci 40:1026–1037Google Scholar
  8. Cahn MD, Zobel RW, Bouldin DR (1989) Relationship between root elongation rate and diameter duration of growth of laterals roots of maize. Plant Soil 119:271–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dardanelli JL, Bachmeier OA, Sereno R, Gil R (1997) Rooting depth and soil water extraction patterns of different crops in a silty loam and Haplustoll. Field Crops Res 54:29–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dunstan DI, Short KC, Thomas E (1978) The anatomy of secondary morphogenesis in cultured scutellum tissues of Sorghum bicolor. Protoplasma 97:251–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Esau K (1967) Anatomy of seed plants. Wiley, New York, p 376Google Scholar
  12. Feldman L (1994) The maize root. In: Freeling M, Walbot V (eds) The maize handbook. Springer, New York, pp 29–37Google Scholar
  13. Giuliani S, Sanguineti MC, Tuberosa R, Bellotti M, Salvi S, Landi P (2005) Root-ABA1, a major constitutive QTL, affects maize root architecture and leaf ABA concentration at different water regimes. J Exp Bot 56:3061–3070CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Gregory PJ, Bengough AG, Grinev D, Schmidt S, Thomas WTB, Wojciechowski T, Young IM (2009) Root phenomics of crops: opportunities and challenges. Funct Plant Biol 36:922–929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hammer GL, Dong ZS, McLean G, Doherty A, Messina C, Schussler J, Zinselmeier C, Paszkiewicz S, Cooper M (2009) Can changes in canopy and/or root system architecture explain historical maize yield trends in the U.S. Corn Belt? Crop Sci 49:299–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hargreaves C, Gregory P, Bengough A (2009) Measuring root traits in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare and ssp. spontaneum) seedlings using gel chambers, soil sacs and X-ray microtomography. Plant Soil 316:285–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ho MD, McCannon BC, Lynch JP (2003) Optimization modeling of plant root architecture for water and phosphorus acquisition. J Theor Biol 226:331–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hochholdinger F, Katrin W, Sauer M, Dembonsky D (2004) Genetic dissection of root formation in maize reveals root-type specific development programmes. Ann Bot 93:359–368CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hund A, Richner W, Soldati A, Fracheboud Y, Stamp P (2007) Root morphology and photosynthetic performance of maize inbred lines at low temperature. Eur J Agron 27:52–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hund A, Ruta N, Liedgens M (2009) Rooting depth and water use efficiency of tropical maize inbred lines, differing in drought tolerance. Plant Soil 318:311–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jahnke S, Menzel MI, van Dusschoten D, Roeb GW, Bühler J, Minwuyelet S, Blümler P, Temperton VM, Hombach T, Streun M, Beer S, Khodaverdi M, Ziemons K, Coenen HH, Schurr U (2009) Combined MRI-PET dissects dynamic changes in plant structures and functions. Plant J 59:634–644CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Jordan WR, Miller FR, Morris DE (1979) Genetic variation in root and shoot growth of sorghum in hydroponics. Crop Sci 19:465–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kato Y, Abe J, Kamoshita A, Yamagishi J (2006) Genotypic variation in root growth angle in rice and its association with deep root development in upland fields with different water regimes. Plant Soil 287:117–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kausch W (1967) Lebensdauer der Primarwurzel von Monokotyledons. Naturwissenschaften 54:475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kiesselbach T (1949) The structure and reproduction of corn. Nebraska Agriculture Experiment Station Research Bulletin 161:3–96Google Scholar
  26. Kozinka V (1977) Primary seminal root, a permanent part of the root system of Zea mays L. Biologia Bratislava 32:779–786Google Scholar
  27. Lafarge TA, Hammer GL (2002) Tillering in grain sorghum over a wide range of population densities: modelling dynamics of tiller fertility. Ann Bot 90:99–110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Lawson WE, Hanway JJ (1977) Corn production. In: Sprague G (ed) Corn and corn improvement. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp 625–669Google Scholar
  29. Ludlow MM, Muchow RC (1990) Critical evaluation of traits for improving crop yields in water-limited environments. Adv Agron 43:107–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lynch JP, van Beem JJ (1993) Growth and architecture of seedling roots of common bean genotypes. Crop Sci 33:1253–1257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Manschadi AM, Hammer GL, Christopher JT, deVoil P (2008) Genotypic variation in seedling root architectural traits and implications for drought adaptation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Soil 303:115–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Manschadi AM, Christopher J, deVoil P, Hammer GL (2006) The role of root architectural traits in adaptation of wheat to water-limited environments. Funct Plant Biol 33:823–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McCully ME, Canny MJ (1988) Pathways and processes of water and nutrients movements in roots. Plant Soil 111:159–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mollier A, Pellerin S (1999) Maize root system growth and developments as influenced by phosphorus deficiency. J Exp Bot 50:487–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nakamoto T, Oyanagi A (1994) The direction of growth of seminal roots of Triticum aestivum L. and experimental modification thereof. Ann Bot 73:363–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nieto-Stoleo J, María Martínez L, Ponce G, Cassab G, Alagón A, Meeley BR, Ribaut J-M, Yang R (2002) Maize HSP101 plays important roles in both induced and basal thermotolerance and primary root growth. Plant Cell 14:1621–1633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Norton JG, Price HA (2009) Mapping of quantitative trait loci for seminal root morphology and gravitropic response in rice. Euphytica 166:229–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Omari F, Mano Y (2007) QTL mapping of root angle in F2 populations from maize ‘B73’ Zea luxuruans. Plant Roots 1:57–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Oyanagi A (1994) Gravitropic response growth angle and vertical distribution of roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant Soil 165:323–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Oyanagi A, Nakamoto T, Morita S (1993) The gravitropic response of roots and the shaping of the root system in cereal plants. Env Exp Bot 33:141–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Price AH, Steele KA, Gorham J, Bridges JM, Moore BJ, Evans JL, Richardson P, Jones RGW (2002) Upland rice grown in soil-filled chambers and exposed to contrasting water-deficit regimes. I. Root distribution, water use and plant water status. Field Crops Res 76:11–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Robertson MJ, Fukai S, Ludlow MM, Hammer GL (1993) Water extraction by grain sorghum in a sub-humid environment. I. Analysis of the water extraction pattern. Field Crops Res 33:81–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Salih AA, Ali IA, Lux A, Luxova M, Cohen Y, Sugimoto Y, Inanaga S (1999) Rooting, water uptake, and xylem structure adaptation to drought of two sorghum cultivars. Crop Sci 39:168–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sinclair TR, Muchow RC (2001) System analysis of plant traits to increase grain yield on limited water supply. Agron J 93:263–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Singh V, Hammer G, van Oosterom E (2008). Variability in structure and function of sorghum root systems. In: M. Unkovich (Ed.) “Global Issues, Paddock Action”. Proceedings of the 14th Australian Society of Agronomy Conference, 21–25 September 2008, Adelaide, South Australia. CD ROM proceedings (ISBN 1 920842 34 9), The Regional Institute, Gosford, Australia. Web site: www.agronomy.org.au
  46. Smith JSC, Duvick DN, Smith OS, Cooper M, Feng L (2004) Changes in pedigree backgrounds of Pioneer brand maize hybrids widely grown from 1930 to 1999. Crop Sci 44:1935–1946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Taramino G, Sauer M, Stauffer JL Jr, Multani D, Niu X, Sakai H, Hochholdinger F (2007) The maize (Zea mays L.) RTCS gene encodes a LOB domain protein that is a key regulator of embryonic seminal and post-embryonic shoot-borne root initiation. Plant J 50:649–659CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Tillich HJ (1977) Vergeleichend morphologische Untersuchungen zur Identitat der Gramineen-Primarwurzel. Flora 166:415–421Google Scholar
  49. Trachsel S, Messmer R, Stamp P, Hund A (2009) Mapping of QTLs for lateral and axile root growth of tropical maize. Theor Appl Genet 119:1413–1424CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Tsuji W, Inanaga S, Araki H, Morita S, An P, Sonobe K (2005) Development and distribution of root system in two grain sorghum cultivars originated from Sudan under drought stress. Plant Prod Sci 8:553–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Turner NC (1975) Concurrent comparisons of stomatal behaviour water status and evaporation of maize in soil at high and low water potential. Plant Physiol 55:932–936CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. van Oosterom E, Hammer G, Kim, H-K, McLean G, Deifel K (2008) Plant design features that improve grain yield of cereals under drought. In: Unkovich M (ed) “Global Issues, Paddock Action”. Proceedings of the 14th Australian Society of Agronomy Conference, 21–25 September 2008, Adelaide, South Australia. CD ROM proceedings (ISBN 1 920842 34 9), The Regional Institute, Gosford, Australia. Web site: www.agronomy.org.au
  53. Wang XL, McCully ME, Canny MJ (1995) Branch roots of Zea. V. Structural features that may influence water and nutrient transport. Botanica Acta 108:209–219Google Scholar
  54. Watt M, Magee LJ, McCully ME (2007) Types, structure and potential for axial water flow in the deepest roots of field-grown cereals. New Phytol 178:135–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Whish J, Butler G, Castor M, Cawthray S, Broad I, Carberry P, Hammer GL, McLean G, Routley R, Yeates S (2005) Modelling the effects of row configuration on sorghum in north-eastern Australia. Austr J Agric Res 56:11–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vijaya Singh
    • 1
  • Erik J. van Oosterom
    • 1
  • David R. Jordan
    • 2
  • Carlos D. Messina
    • 3
  • Mark Cooper
    • 3
  • Graeme L. Hammer
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Land, Crop and Food SciencesThe University of QueenslandQueenslandAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, Queensland Primary Industries and FisheriesHermitage Research StationQueenslandAustralia
  3. 3.Pioneer Hi-Bred InternationalJohnstonUSA

Personalised recommendations