Do ammonia-oxidizing archaea respond to soil Cu contamination similarly asammonia-oxidizing bacteria?
- 387 Downloads
Inhibitory experiments were conducted to investigate the responses of the population sizes of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) and the potential nitrification rates (PNRs) to Cu contamination in four Chinese soils. PNR was determined using a substrate-induced nitrification (SIN) assay, and the population size of the nitrifiers represented by amoA gene abundances was quantified using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. Both population size and PNR of the ammonia oxidizers reduced considerably at high Cu concentrations in all the soils. Bacterial amoA gene abundance was reduced by from 107-fold (Hailun soil) to more than 232-fold (Hangzhou soil) at the highest Cu concentrations (2,400 mg kg−1 Cu for Hailun, Langfang and Guangzhou soils and 1,600 mg kg−1 Cu for Hangzhou soil), while reduction in archaeal amoA gene abundance was from 10-fold (Langfang soil) to 89-fold (Hangzhou soil). AOA seemed more tolerant to Cu contamination than AOB. Nitrification rates were inhibited by more than 50% at a Cu concentration of 600 mg kg−1, and by more than 90% at the highest Cu concentrations in all soils. These results indicated that both AOA and AOB can be inhibited by toxic metals, highlighting the need to consider the role of AOA in nitrification in soils.
KeywordsPotential nitrification rate Ammonia oxidizer AmoA gene Cu
- Arp DJ, Bottomley PJ (2006) Nitrifiers: more than 100 years from isolation to genome sequences. Microbe 1:229–234Google Scholar
- Bakken LR (1997) In Modern Soil Microbiology. Eds. J van Elsas, D Trevors and E Wellington. pp 47–61, Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Cavagnaro TR, Jackson LE, Hristova K, Scow KM (2008) Short-term population dynamics of ammonia oxidizing bacteria in an agricultural soil. Appl Soil Ecol. doi:10.1016/j.apsoil.2008.1002.1006
- He J-Z, Shen J-P, Zhang L-M, Zhu Y-G, Zheng Y-M, Xu M-G, Di H-J (2007) Quantitative analyses of the abundance and composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing archaea of a Chinese upland red soil under long-term fertilization practices. Environ Microbiol 9:2364–2374. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2007.01358.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Okano Y, Hristova KR, Leutenegger CM, Jackson LE, Denison RF, Gebreyesus B, Lebauer D, Scow KM (2004) Application of real-time PCR to study effects of ammonium population size of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in soil. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:1008–1016. doi:10.1128/AEM.70.2.1008-1016.2004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stephen JR, Chang YJ, Macnaughton SJ, Kowalchuk GA, Leung KT, Flemming CA, White DC (1999) Effect of toxic metals on indigenous soil-subgroup Proteobacterium ammonia oxidizer community structure and protection against toxicity by inoculated metal-resistant bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:95–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stephen JR, Kowalchuk GA, Bruns MAV, McCaig AE, Phillips CJ, Embley TM, Prosser JI (1998) Analysis of beta-subgroup proteobacterial ammonia oxidizer populations in soil by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and hierarchical phylogenetic probing. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:2958–2965PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tan KH (2005) Soil sampling, preparation, and analysis. Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, the United States, pp 154–173Google Scholar
- Treusch AH, Leininger S, Kletzin A, Schuster SC, Klenk HP, Schleper C (2005) Novel genes for nitrite reductase and Amo-related proteins indicate a role of uncultivated mesophilic crenarchaeota in nitrogen cycling. Environ Microbiol 7:1985–1995. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2005.00906.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar