Plant and Soil

, Volume 332, Issue 1–2, pp 123–134 | Cite as

Nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emissions from an irrigated cotton field in Northern China

  • Chunyan Liu
  • Xunhua Zheng
  • Zaixing Zhou
  • Shenghui Han
  • Yinghong Wang
  • Kai Wang
  • Wangguo Liang
  • Ming Li
  • Deli Chen
  • Zhiping Yang
Regular Article

Abstract

Cotton is one of the major crops worldwide and delivers fibers to textile industries across the globe. Its cultivation requires high nitrogen (N) input and additionally irrigation, and the combination of both has the potential to trigger high emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO), thereby contributing to rising levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Using an automated static chamber measuring system, we monitored in high temporal resolution N2O and NO fluxes in an irrigated cotton field in Northern China, between January 1st and December 31st 2008. Mean daily fluxes varied between 5.8 to 373.0 µg N2O-N m−2 h−1 and −3.7 to 135.7 µg NO-N m−2 h−1, corresponding to an annual emission of 2.6 and 0.8 kg N ha−1 yr−1 for N2O and NO, respectively. The highest emissions of both gases were observed directly after the N fertilization and lasted approximately 1 month. During this time period, the emission was 0.85 and 0.22 kg N ha−1 for N2O and NO, respectively, and was responsible for 32.3% and 29.0% of the annual total N2O and NO loss. Soil temperature, moisture and mineral N content significantly affected the emissions of both gases (p < 0.01). Direct emission factors were estimated to be 0.95% (N2O) and 0.24% (NO). We also analyzed the effects of sampling time and frequency on the estimations of annual cumulative N2O and NO emissions and found that low frequency measurements produced annual estimates which differed widely from those that were based on continuous measurements.

Keywords

Emission factor Soil nitrogen Fertilization Irrigation Cotton Sampling frequency 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chunyan Liu
    • 1
  • Xunhua Zheng
    • 1
  • Zaixing Zhou
    • 1
  • Shenghui Han
    • 1
  • Yinghong Wang
    • 1
  • Kai Wang
    • 1
  • Wangguo Liang
    • 1
  • Ming Li
    • 1
  • Deli Chen
    • 2
  • Zhiping Yang
    • 3
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry (LAPC), Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IAP-CAS)BeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Resource Management and GeographyMelbourne School of Land and Environment, The University of MelbourneVictoriaAustralia
  3. 3.Institute of Soil and Fertiliser, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural SciencesTaiyuanPeople’s Republic of China

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