Antimony accumulation and antioxidative responses in four fern plants
- 418 Downloads
Antimony (Sb) toxicity and contamination has become a growing concern in recent years. Remediation of Sb contamination using plants may be an effective approach. This study aimed to investigate the potential of antimony (Sb) tolerance and accumulation by plants, as well as to understand the antioxidative responses to Sb. One set of hydroponic trials was set up using four species of fern plants, including Pteris cretica (PCA), Microlepia hancei (MH), Cyrtomium fortunei (CYF) and Cyclosorus dentatus (CYD). Ferns were grown for 2 weeks in nutrient solution containing a medium (5 mg L−1) and a high (20 mg L−1) rate of Sb, with no Sb added as the control. The biomass of fern PCA remained constant with Sb addition, whereas the biomass of ferns CYF, MH and CYD at the high Sb rate exposure decreased by 12.5%, 35.0% and 38.3%, respectively as compared with their controls. This suggests a high to low Sb tolerance order for these four fern plants. For all of these fern plants, more Sb was accumulated in the roots than in the fronds. Antimony concentration in the roots at the high rate of Sb addition was recorded, on average, as 358 mg kg−1 for fern PCA, 224 mg kg−1 for fern CYF, 124 mg kg−1 for fern CYD and 123 mg kg−1 for fern MH. A high rate of addition of Sb increased the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) by 41.3% and 171.6% for ferns MH and CYD, respectively, as compared with their controls. No changes for MDA contents were observed in ferns PCA and CYF with Sb addition, indicating no lipid peroxidation reaction in these two plants. At a medium rate of Sb addition, the activities of peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase in fern PCA were much higher than those in ferns CYF, CYD and MH, demonstrating the important role of these three enzymes in resisting Sb toxicity. The consistency in unchanged biomass, high accumulation of Sb in roots, lower MDA contents, as well as high enzyme production in fronds, indicated that fern PCA was more tolerant to Sb than the other three fern plants. Antioxidative enzymes (peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase) might be involved in Sb toxicity resistance of fern PCA.
KeywordsArsenic hyperaccumulator Antimony Antioxidants Tolerance Phytoremediation
This research was supported by the National Science Foundation of China (40632011, 20477045), the National Key Technologies R&D Program of China during the 11th Five-Year Plan Period (2006BAJ05A08), and the Renovation Project of the Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CXIOG-C04-02). We thank Ms. Ling-Mei Wang for her assistance in chemical analysis. We also thank the two anonymous reviewers for their thoughtful comments, which help to greatly improve the quality of this manuscript.
- Crommentuijn T, Sijm D, de Bruijn J, van den Hoop M, van Leeuwen K, van de Plassche E (2000) Maximum permissible and negligible concentrations for metals and metalloids in the Netherlands, taking into account background concentrations. J Environ Manage 60:121–143 doi: 10.1006/jema.2000.0354 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Eikmann T, Kloke A (1993) Nutzungs- und schutzgutbezogene Orientierungswerte fur (Schad-) stoffe in Boden. In: Rosenkranz D, Bachmann G, Einsele G, Harress HM (eds) Bodenschutz. Ergänzbares Handbuch der Maßnahmen und Empfehlungen für Schutz, Pflege und Sanierung von Böden, Landschaft und Grundwasser-1, Band, 14 Lfg X/93. Erich Schmidt, Berlin, GermanyGoogle Scholar
- EU (1998) Council Directive 98/83/EC of 3 November 1998, Quality of Water Intended for Human consumption. Official J L 330, 05/12/1998, pp 32–54Google Scholar
- Giannopolitis CN, Ries SK (1977) Superoxide Dismutases: I. Occurrence in Higher Plants. Plant Physiol 59:309–314Google Scholar
- Hoagland DR, Arnon DI (1950) The water-culture method for growing plants without soil. Cal Agric Exp Sta Cir 347:1–32Google Scholar
- Kabata-Pendias A, Pendias H (2001) Trace elements in soils and plants., 3rd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USAGoogle Scholar
- Reeves RD, Baker AJM (2000) Metal-accumulating plants. In: Raskin I (Ed), Phytoremediation of Toxic Metals: Using Plants to Clean Up the Environment. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, pp 193–229Google Scholar
- Smith KS, Huyck HLO (1999) An overview of the abundance, relative mobility, bioavailability, and human toxicity of metals. In: Plumlee GS, Logsdon MJ (eds) The environmental geochemistry of mineral deposits, Part A: Society of Economic Geologists. Rev Econ Geol 6A, 29–70Google Scholar
- Stemmer KL (1976) Pharmacology and toxicology of heavy metals: antimony. Pharmacol Ther A 1:157–160Google Scholar
- USEPA (1979) Water related fate of the 129 priority pollutants, vol. 1. USEPA, Washington DC, USA EP-440/4-79-029AGoogle Scholar