Advertisement

Plant and Soil

, Volume 315, Issue 1–2, pp 47–65 | Cite as

Soil humic compounds and microbial communities in six spruce forests as function of parent material, slope aspect and stand age

  • Paolo Carletti
  • Elena Vendramin
  • Diego Pizzeghello
  • Giuseppe Concheri
  • Augusto Zanella
  • Serenella Nardi
  • Andrea Squartini
Regular Article

Abstract

The influences on soil chemical and microbial properties of parent material, north south aspect and time measured as stand age were investigated in six spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forests located in the alpine range of Northern Italy. Soil samples from A horizons were analysed for humic substances and in parallel Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) community profiles and microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen content were determined. Chemical data were analyzed by canonical discriminant analysis while the ARDRA fingerprints were ordered in clusters using image analysis software. The geologic parent material was the most determining factor and the aspect-dependent microclimate features also played a distinct role in defining both soil chemistry and microbial community composition; in contrast the composition of the deeper humus layers (OH, A) was stable and similar within a spruce forest cycle time. Most important variables in the construction of the discriminating models resulted soil pH, Dissolved Organic Carbon content and Dissolved Organic Matter phenolic compounds. Bacterial communities appeared to be shaped first and foremost by the substratum, secondly by mountain slope orientation, and thirdly by forest stage, thus confirming the CDA model.

Keywords

ARDRA community profiles Dissolved organic matter DOM phenolics Humic substances Picea abies (L.) Karst Soil organic matter 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was funded by the Autonomous Province of Trento ‘n. 437 dd. 08/03/2002’. The authors wish to thank Dr Claudio Chemini, Dr Lorenzo Frizzera, Dr Paola Galvan, Dr Roberto Zampedri and Dr Silvia Chersich of Centro di Ecologia Alpina (Trento, Italy) for their collaboration. P.C. and E. V. were the recipients of a fellowship from the Dinamus project for which we are grateful to Prof. Franco Viola. The authors wish to thank Ms. Canapero for the language revision.

References

  1. Allison VJ, Yermakov Z, Miller RM, Jastrow JD, Matamala R (2007) Using landscape and depth gradients to decouple the impact of correlated environmental variables on soil microbial community composition. Soil Biol Biochem 39:505–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Atlas RM, Bartha R (1998) Microbial ecology: fundamentals and applications. Benjamin/Cummings, Redwood City, CAGoogle Scholar
  3. Baldock JA, Skjemstad JO (2000) Role of the soil matrix and minerals in protecting natural organic materials against biological attack. Org Geochem 31:697–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnes BV, Zak DR, Denton SR, Spurr SH (1998) Forest ecology. Wiley, New York, p 774Google Scholar
  5. Begon M, Harper JL, Townsend CR (1990) Ecology: individuals, populations and communities. Blackwell Scientific, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  6. Berger TW, Neubauer C, Glatzel G (2002) Factors controlling soil carbon and nitrogen stores in pure stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and mixed species stands in Austria. For Ecol Manag 159:3–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blum U (2004) Fate of phenolic allelochemicals in soils—the role of soils and rhizosphere microrganisms. In: Macìas FA, Galindo JCG, Molinillo JMG, Cutler HG (eds) Allelopathy chemistry and mode of action of allelochemicals. CRC, London, pp 57–76Google Scholar
  8. Box JD (1983) Investigation of the Folin–Ciocalteau phenol reagent for the determination of polyphenolic substances in natural waters. Water Res 17:511–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cabrera ML, Beare MH (1993) Alkaline persulphate oxidation for determining total nitrogen in microbial biomass extracts. Soil Sci Soc Am J 57:1007–1012Google Scholar
  10. Cataldo DH, Haroon M, Shrader LE, Youngs VL (1975) Rapid colorimetric determination of nitrate in plant tissue by nitration of salicylic acid. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 6:71–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chauvat M, Ponge JF, Wolters V (2007) Humus structure during a spruce forest rotation: quantitative changes and relationship to soil biota. Eur J Soil Sci 58:625–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Clarke N, Wu YJ, Strand LT (2007) Dissolved organic carbon concentrations in four Norway spruce stands of different ages. Plant Soil 299:275–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Corre MD, Schnabel RR, Shaffer JA (1999) Evaluation of soil organic carbon under forests, cool-season and warm-season grasses in the northeastern US. Soil Biol Biochem 31:1531–1539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dell’Agnola G, Ferrari G (1971) Molecular sizes and functional groups of humic substances extracted by 0.1 M pyrophosphate from soil. J Soil Sci 22:342–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dickens HE, Anderson JM (1999) Manipulation of soil microbial community structure in bog and forest soils using chloroform fumigation. Soil Biol Biochem 31:2049–2058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Einhellig FA (2004) Mode of allelochemical action of phenolic compounds. In: Macìas FA, Galindo JCG, Molinillo JMG, Cutler HG (eds) Allelopathy chemistry and mode of action of allelochemicals. CRC, London, UK, pp 219–238Google Scholar
  17. Ertel JR, Behmel P, Christman RF, Flaig WJA, Haider KM, Hatcher PG et al (1988) Genesis group report. In: Frimmel FH, Christman RF (eds) Humic substances and their role in the environment. Wiley, New York, USA, pp 104–112Google Scholar
  18. Fierer N, Jackson RB (2006) The diversity and biogeography of soil bacterial communities. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:626–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fierer N, Schimel JP, Cates RG, Zou JP (2001) Influence of balsam poplar tannin fractions on carbon and nitrogen dynamics in Alaskan taiga floodplain soils. Soil Biol Biochem 33:1827–1839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. FitzPatrick EA (1986) An introduction to soil science. Longman, Essex, UKGoogle Scholar
  21. Frizzera L (2006) Vegetation study according to the integrated synusial phyto-sociologic approach: contribution to the ecologic characterization of silver fir forests differing in climate and bedrock in Trentino (Studio della vegetazione secondo il metodo fitosociologico sinusiale integrato: contributo alla caratterizzazione ecologica di alcune peccete altimontane in Trentino, diverse per clima e roccia madre). Ph.D. Thesis, Università degli Studi di Padova, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  22. Gerzabek MK, Pichlmater F, Blochberger K, Schaffer K (1990) Use of C-13 mesurements in humus dynamics studies. In: International Symposium on the Use of Stable Isotopes in Plant Nutrition, Soil Fertility and Environmental Studies, IAEA-SM-303/42, Vienna, Austria, pp 1–11Google Scholar
  23. Gibbons JD (1976) Nonparametric methods for quantitative analysis. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Hackl E, Zechmeister-Boltenstern S, Bodrossy L, Sessitsch A (2004) Comparison of diversities and compositions of bacterial populations inhabiting natural forest soils. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:5057–5065PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hartley RD, Buchan H (1979) High-performance liquid chromatography of phenolic acids and aldehydes derived from plants or from the decomposition of organic matter in soil. J Chromatogr A 180:139–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. IUSS Working Group WRB (2006) World reference base for soil resources 2006, 2nd edn. World Soil Resources Report No. 103, FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  27. Jenny H (1961) Derivation of state factor equations of soils and ecosystems. Soil Sci Soc Am J 25:385–388Google Scholar
  28. Jones CG, Gutierrez JL, Groffman PM, Shachak M (2006) Linking ecosystem engineers to soil processes: a framework using the Jenny State Factor Equation. Eur J Soil Biol 42:S39–S53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kanerva S, Kitunen V, Kiikkila O, Loponen J, Smolander A (2006) Response of soil C and N transformations to tannin fractions originating from Scots pine and Norway spruce needles. Soil Biol Biochem 38:1364–1374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kjeldahl J (1883) A new method for the determination of nitrogen in organic matter. Z Anal Chem 22:366–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kooijman AM, Jongejans J, Sevink J (2005) Parent material effects on Mediterranean woodland ecosystems in NE Spain. Catena 59:55–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Korkama T, Fritze H, Kiikkila O, Pennanen T (2007) Do same-aged but different height Norway spruce (Picea abies) clones affect soil microbial community? Soil Biol Biochem 39:2420–2423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lamarche J, Bradley RL, Hooper E, Shipley B, Beaunoir AMS, Beaulieu C (2007) Forest floor bacterial community composition and catabolic profiles in relation to landscape features in Quebec’s Southern Boreal Forest. Microb Ecol 54:10–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Leifeld J, Bassin S, Fuhrer J (2005) Carbon stocks in Swiss agricultural soils predicted by land-use, soil characteristics, and altitude. Agric Ecosyst Environ 105:255–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lowe LE, Scagel AM, Klinka K (1987) Chemical properties and classification of organic horizons from selected soils in British Columbia. Can J Soil Sci 67:383–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Marchesi JR, Sato T, Weightman AJ, Martin TA, Fry JC, Hiom SJ et al (1998) Design and evaluation of useful bacterium-specific PCR primers that amplify genes coding for bacterial 16S rRNA. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:795–799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. McNab WH (1993) A topographic index to quantify the effect of mesoscale landform on site productivity. Can J For Res 23:1100–1107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Muscolo A, Sidari M, Mercurio R (2007) Influence of gap size on organic matter decomposition, microbial biomass and nutrient cycle in Calabrian pine (Pinus laricio, Poiret) stands. For Ecol Manag 242:412–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Muyzer G, Dewaal EC, Uitterlinden AG (1993) Profiling of complex microbial-populations by denaturing gradient gel-electrophoresis analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified genes-coding for 16S ribosomal-RNA. Appl Environ Microbiol 59:695–700PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Nardi S, Pizzeghello D, Bragazza L, Gerdol R (2003) Low-molecular-weight organic acids and hormone-like activity of dissolved organic matter in two forest soils in N Italy. J Chem Ecol 29:1549–1564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Neilsen CB, Groffman PM, Hamburg SP, Driscoll CT, Fahey TJ, Hardy JP (2001) Freezing effects on carbon and nitrogen cycling in northern hardwood forest soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 65:1723–1730Google Scholar
  42. Odasso M (2002) Forest types in Trentino (Tipi forestali del Trentino). Centro di Ecologia Alpina, Trento, Italy, p 192Google Scholar
  43. Osborn AM, Moore ERB, Timmis KN (2000) An evaluation of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis for the study of microbial community structure and dynamics. Environ Microbiol 2:39–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pedrotti F (1981) Vegetation map, Trento area (Carta della vegetazione del foglio di Trento). CNR, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  45. Pedrotti F (1982) Vegetation map, Mezzolombardo area (Carta della vegetazione del foglio di Mezzolombardo)). CNR, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  46. Pedrotti F (1987) Vegetation map, Borgo Valsugana area (Carta della vegetazione del foglio di Borgo Valsugana)). CNR, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  47. Peichl M, Moore TR, Arain MA, Dalva M, Brodkey D, McLaren J (2007) Concentrations and fluxes of dissolved organic carbon in an age-sequence of white pine forests in Southern Ontario, Canada. Biogeochemistry 86:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pellissier F (1994) Effect of phenolic-compounds in humus on the natural regeneration of spruce. Phytochemistry 36:865–867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pennanen T, Liski J, Baath E, Kitunen V, Uotila J, Westman CJ et al (1999) Structure of the microbial communities in coniferous forest soils in relation to site fertility and stand development stage. Microb Ecol 38:168–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pickett STA (1989) Space-for-time substitution as an alternative to long term studies. In: Likens GE (ed) Long term studies in ecology. Springer, New York, pp 110–135Google Scholar
  51. Pizzeghello D, Zanella A, Carletti P, Nardi S (2006) Chemical and biological characterization of dissolved organic matter from silver fir and beech forest soils. Chemosphere 65:190–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ponge JF (2003) Humus forms in terrestrial ecosystems: a framework to biodiversity. Soil Biol Biochem 35:935–945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Prichard SJ, Peterson DL, Hammer RD (2000) Carbon distribution in subalpine forests and meadows of the Olympic Mountains, Washington. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64:1834–1845Google Scholar
  54. Qualls RG (2000) Comparison of the behavior of soluble organic and inorganic nutrients in forest soils. For Ecol Manag 138:29–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rasmussen C, Southard RJ, Horwath WR (2006) Mineral control of organic carbon mineralization in a range of temperate conifer forest soils. Glob Chang Biol 12:834–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rasmussen C, Southard RJ, Horwath WR (2007) Soil mineralogy affects conifer forest soil carbon source utilization and microbial priming. Soil Sci Soc Am J 71:1141–1150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rezaei SA, Gilkes RJ (2005) The effects of landscape attributes and plant community on soil physical properties in rangelands. Geoderma 125:145–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sariyildiz T, Anderson JM, Kucuk M (2005) Effects of tree species and topography on soil chemistry, litter quality, and decomposition in Northeast Turkey. Soil Biol Biochem 37:1695–1706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Scharenbroch BC, Bockheim JG (2007) Impacts of forest gaps on soil properties and processes in old growth northern hardwood-hemlock forests. Plant Soil 294:219–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Schimel JP, VanCleve K, Cates RG, Clausen TP, Reichardt PB (1996) Effects of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) tannins and low molecular weight phenolics on microbial activity in taiga floodplain soil: implications for changes in N cycling during succession. Can J Bot 74:84–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Six J, Callewaert P, Lenders S, De Gryze S, Morris SJ, Gregorich EG et al (2002) Measuring and understanding carbon storage in afforested soils by physical fractionation. Soil Sci Soc Am J 66:1981–1987Google Scholar
  62. Tan KW (1998) Principles of soil chemistry. Marcel Dekker, New York, p 548Google Scholar
  63. Vance ED, Brookes PC, Jenkinson DS (1987) Microbial biomass measurements in forest soils: determination of k C values and tests of hypotheses to explain the failure of the chloroform fumigation–incubation method in acid soils. Soil Biol Biochem 19:689–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Vaneechoutte M, Debeenhouwer H, Claeys G, Verschraegen G, Derouck A, Paepe N et al (1993) Identification of Mycobacterium species by using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. J Clin Microbiol 31:2061–2065PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Vendramin E, Cagnazzo A, Squartini A (2001) Microbiodiversity of Trentino, Italy, lakes: a molecular taxonomy approach. (Microbiodiversità dei laghi del Trentino, Italia: un approccio di tassonomia molecolare.). Studi Trent Sci Nat Acta Biol 78:117–127Google Scholar
  66. Verburg PSJ, Van Dam D, Hefting MM, Tietema A (1999) Microbial transformations of C and N in a boreal forest floor as affected by temperature. Plant Soil 208:187–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Walkley A, Black IA (1934) An examination of Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Sci 37:29–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Young IM, Crawford JW (2004) Interactions and self-organization in the soil–microbe complex. Science 304:1634–1637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Zampedri R (2006) Relations among microclimate, humus forms and forest dynamics in Silver fir environment (Relazioni tra microclima, forme di humus e dinamica forestale in ambiente di pecceta altimontana). Ph.D. Thesis, Università degli Studi di Padova, ItalyGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paolo Carletti
    • 1
    • 3
  • Elena Vendramin
    • 1
  • Diego Pizzeghello
    • 1
  • Giuseppe Concheri
    • 1
  • Augusto Zanella
    • 2
  • Serenella Nardi
    • 1
  • Andrea Squartini
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Biotecnologie AgrarieUniversità di PadovaLegnaroItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento Territorio e Sistemi Agro-ForestaliUniversità di PadovaLegnaroItaly
  3. 3.Centro di Ecologia AlpinaFondazione Edmund MachTrentoItaly

Personalised recommendations