Revisiting copper and cobalt concentrations in supposed hyperaccumulators from SC Africa: influence of washing and metal concentrations in soil
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- Faucon, MP., Shutcha, M.N. & Meerts, P. Plant Soil (2007) 301: 29. doi:10.1007/s11104-007-9405-3
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Metal concentrations have been determined in shoots of 12 species considered as Cu and/or Co hyperaccumulators, collected from five subpopulations in a Cu/Co mine in Katanga. Samples have been subjected to three cleansing protocols (water, alconox, alconox + EDTA). Cu/Co concentrations were significantly higher when demineralised water was used to wash samples compared to more aggressive solutions. Washing effect was largest for species with velvety (Acalypha cupricola) or sticky (Haumaniastrum katangense) indumentum. Element concentrations in shoots varied by two orders of magnitude, i.e. 45–2,891 mg kg−1 Cu (median: 329 mg kg−1) and 21–1,971 mg kg−1 Co (median: 426 mg kg−1) and were generally lower than previously published values. Only 9.3% of data exceeded the hyperaccumulation threshold (1,000 mg kg−1) for Cu and 13% for Co. Shoot concentrations varied by up to two orders of magnitude among subpopulations within species which was partly explained by variation of metal concentrations in the soil. Although the species considered in this paper undisputedly accumulate Co and Cu up to very high concentrations that require specific shoot tolerance mechanisms, the concept of hyperaccumulation, as defined for other metals like Zn and Ni, needs to be critically re-examined for Cu and Co. Our results suggest that many species so far regarded as Co/Cu hyperaccumulators might eventually turn out to be indicators.