Plant and Soil

, Volume 296, Issue 1–2, pp 1–17 | Cite as

Leaching loss of NO3-N and dissolved P from manure and fertilizer during turfgrass establishment

  • F. J. Hay
  • D. M. Vietor
  • C. L. Munster
  • R. H. White
  • T. L. Provin
Regular Article

Abstract

Cycling of manure nutrients through turfgrass sod could affect groundwater quality. The fate of nutrients in transplanted fertilizer- or manure-grown sod of Tifway bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers. X C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davey) was compared with that in composted dairy manure (CDM) applied to a sprigged treatment. Leaching loss of NO3-N and dissolved P (DP) in filtrate (<0.45 μm) of leachate was compared among sodded and sprigged treatments during periods 0–50, 60–110, and 330–380 d after planting in lysimeters. In addition, recovery of N and P in turfgrass clippings and a sand medium was quantified. Maintenance applications of CDM or fertilizer P were top-dressed starting 60 d after planting. Leachate was collected and sampled over three simulated rain events during each of the three sampling periods. From 0 d to 50 d after planting, leaching loss of NO3-N from sprigged Tifway totaled 2.0 g m−2 and was 10 times greater than loss from CDM-grown or fertilizer-grown sod. In contrast, DP loss in leachate was ≤0.02 g m−2 and similar among treatments. Surface applications of CDM and fertilizer P and N increased concentration and mass of total Kjeldahl N (TKN) and soil-test P (STP) in surface or subsurface layers of the sand medium. Yet, NO3-N mass in leachate collected over three simulated rain events ranged from 0.0 to only 1.0% of applied N from 60–110 d and 330–380 d after planting. Leaching loss of NO3-N did not differ between the sodded and sprigged treatments after two topdressings of CDM. Similarly, the DP mass recovered in leachate was small (≤0.013 g m−1) and did not differ among treatments during the latter two sampling periods. The mass loss of DP in leachate was typically less than the DP mass applied through irrigation or simulated rain. Importing CDM in sod reduces NO3-N leaching loss compared to sprigged turfgrass amended with CDM, but NO3-N and DP leaching losses are similar during maintenance of CDM-grown and fertilizer-grown sod from 60–110 d to 330–380 d after transplanting.

Keywords

Composted manure Leaching loss Phosphorus Turfgrass sod Turfgrass establishment 

Abbreviations

CAFO

Confined animal feeding operation

CDM

Composted dairy manure

FGS

Fertilizer-grown sod transplanted to box lysimeter

MGS

Manure-grown sod transplanted to box lysimeter

SM

Composted manure topdressed after sprigs were planted in box lysimeter

SRP

Soluble reactive phosphorus

STP

Soil-test phosphorus

DP

Dissolved phosphorus

TKN

Total Kjeldahl nitrogen

TP

Total phosphorus

Notes

Acknowledgements

The United States Department of Agriculture Cooperative State Research Education and Extension Integrated Water Quality Research Program and the National Water Resources Institute of the United States Department of Interior provided financial support. The authors are grateful for the able technical support of Kimberly Thompson

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. J. Hay
    • 1
  • D. M. Vietor
    • 2
  • C. L. Munster
    • 3
  • R. H. White
    • 2
  • T. L. Provin
    • 2
  1. 1.PierceUSA
  2. 2.Soil and Crop Sciences DepartmentTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  3. 3.Biological and Agricultural Engineering DepartmentTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

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