Plant and Soil

, Volume 284, Issue 1–2, pp 253–264

Enhanced soil and leaf nutrient status of a Western Australian Banksia woodland community invaded by Ehrharta calycina and Pelargonium capitatum

  • Judith L. Fisher
  • Erik J. Veneklaas
  • Hans Lambers
  • William A. Loneragan
Research Article

Abstract

Increased nutrient availability can have a large impact in Australian woodland ecosystems, many of which are very poor in nutrients, particularly phosphorus. A study was conducted in an urban Banksia woodland remnant in Perth, southwest Western Australia to test the hypothesis that the soil nutrient status in areas in good condition (GC), poor condition invaded by the perennial grass Ehrharta calycina (PCe), and poor condition invaded by the perennial herb Pelargonium capitatum (PCp), is reflected in the nutrient status of the native and introduced species. Leaf concentrations of P, K, N, Na, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn of six native (Banksia attenuata, Banksia menziesii, Allocasuarina humilis, Melaleuca systena, Macrozamia fraseri and Conostylis aculeata) and four introduced species (Ehrharta calycina, Pelargonium capitatum, Gladiolus caryophyllaceus and Briza maxima), were measured. Soil pH, electrical conductivity, N (total), P (total), available P, K, S and organic C were assessed beneath all species on all sites. Significantly higher concentrations of soil P (total) and P (HCO3) were found at PCe and PCp sites than GC sites, while PCp sites also had significantly higher soil concentrations for N (total) and S. Principal Components Analysis of the leaf analyses showed (a) individual species have characteristically different nutrient concentrations; (b) the introduced species Ehrharta calycina and Pelargonium capitatum clustered separately from each other and by vegetation condition. Leaf concentrations of P were significantly (P<0.05) higher, and K and Cu were significantly lower in PCe and PCp sites compared with those at GC sites. Introduced species leaf nutrient concentrations were significantly greater than native species for all nutrients except Mn which was significantly lower, with no differences for Mg and B. The results indicate a key role for P in the Banksia woodland, and we conclude that higher levels of available P at invaded sites are having a detrimental impact on the ecosystem. These results provide new knowledge to enhance conservation practices for the management of the key threatening process of invasion within a biodiversity hot spot.

Keywords

Disturbance Invasive species Low-nutrient soils Phosphorus Remnant vegetation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, MA 1994Nitrogen and phosphorus availability and the role of fire in heathlands at Wilsons PromontoryAust J Bot42269281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anon1977Technicon industrial method 334–74W/B+Technicon Industrial SystemsTarrytown N.Y., USAGoogle Scholar
  3. Baird, AM 1977Regeneration after fire in King’s Park, Perth, Western AustraliaJ Roy Soc W A60122Google Scholar
  4. Beadle, NCW 1966Soil phosphate and its role in molding segments of the Australian flora and vegetation, with special reference to xeromorphy and sclerophyllyEcology479921007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beard, JS 1989Definition and location of the Banksia woodlandJ Roy Soc W A718384Google Scholar
  6. Bennett, LT, Attiwill, PM 1996The nutritional status of healthy and declining stands of Banksia integrifolia on the Yanakie Isthmus, VictoriaAust J Bot451530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blair, GJ, Chinoim, N, Lefroy, RDB, Anderson, GC, Crocker, GJ 1991A soil sulphur test for pastures and cropsAust J Soil Res29619626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blakemore LC, Searle PL, Daly BK (1987) Methods for chemical analysis of soils. In: NZ Soil Bureau Science. Report 80Google Scholar
  9. Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority2000Bold park environmental management plan 2000–2005Botanic Gardens and Parks AuthorityPerth303Google Scholar
  10. Bridgewater, PB, Backshall, DJ 1981Dynamics of some Western Australian ligneous formations with special reference to the invasion of exotic speciesVegetatio46141148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burke, MJW, Grime, JP 1996An experimental study of plant community invisibilityEcology77776790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cale, P, Hobbs, R 1991

    Condition of roadside vegetation in relation to nutrient status

    Saunders, DAHobbs, RJ eds. Nature conservation 2: The role of corridorsSurrey Beatty & Sons Pty LtdChipping Norton353362
    Google Scholar
  13. Clarke, KR 1993Non-parametric multivariate analysis of changes in community structureAust J Ecol18117143Google Scholar
  14. Clements, A 1983Suburban development and resultant changes in the vegetation of the bushland of the northern Sydney regionAust J Ecol8307319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cowling, RM, Lamont, BB, Enright, NJ 1990

    Fire and the management of Banksias in southwestern Australia

    Saunders, DHow, RHopkins, A eds. Australian Ecosystems - 200 Years of Utilisation, Degradation and ReconstructionSurrey-Beatty & Sons Pty LtdChipping Norton177183
    Google Scholar
  16. D’Antonio, CM, Vitousek, PM 1992Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass/fire cycle, and global changeAnnu Rev Ecol Evol236387Google Scholar
  17. Davis, MA, Grime, JP, Thompson, K 2000Fluctuating resources in plant communities: a general theory of invisibilityJ Ecol88528534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dixon, K, Barrett, R 2003

    Defining the role of fire in south-west Western Australia

    Abbott, IBurrows, N eds. Fire in ecosystems of south-west Western Australia: impacts and managementBackhuys PublishersLeiden205223
    Google Scholar
  19. Fisher, JL, Delaney, J, Loneragan, WA 1999

    Disturbance and weed invasion in a significant urban bushland remnant

    Kesby, JAStanley, JMMcLean, RFOlive, LJ eds. Geodiversity: Readings in Australian Geography at the close of the 20th CenturySchool of Geography and Oceanography, University College, Australian Defence Force AcademyCanberra ACT2935
    Google Scholar
  20. Foulds, W 1993Nutrient concentrations of foliage and soil in South-western AustraliaNew Phytol125529546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fynn, RWS, Morris, CD, Kirkman, KP 2005Plant strategies and trait trade-offs influence trends in competitive ability along gradients of soil fertility and disturbanceJ Ecol93384394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Grierson, PF, Adams, MA 1999

    Nutrient cycling and growth in forest ecosystems of south western Australia: relevance to agricultural landscapes

    Lefroy, ECHobbs, RJO’Connor, MGPate, JS. eds. Agriculture as a mimic of natural ecosystemsKluwer Academic PublishersDordecht, The Netherlands271300
    Google Scholar
  23. Grigg, AM, Pate, JS, Unkovich, J 2000Responses of native woody taxa in Banksia woodland to incursion of groundwater and nutrients from bordering agricultural landAust J Bot48777792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Groom, PK, Froend, RH, Mattiske, EM 2000The impact of groundwater abstraction on a Banksia woodland, Swan Coastal Plain, Western AustraliaEnviron Manag Rest1117124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Heddle, EM, Specht, RL 1975Dark Island Heath (Ninety-Mile Plain, South Australia) VIII. The effect of fertilizers on composition and growth 1950–1972Aust J Bot2315164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hobbs, RJ, Atkins, L 1988Effect of disturbance and nutrient addition on native and introduced annuals in plant communities in the Western Australian wheatbeltAust J Ecol13171179Google Scholar
  27. Hobbs, RJ, Atkins, L 1991Interactions between annuals and woody perennials in a Western Australian nature reserveVeg Sci2643654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hopkins, AJM, Griffin, EA 1989Fire in the Banksia woodlands of the Swan Coastal PlainJ Roy Soc W A.719394Google Scholar
  29. Hopper, SD, Gioia, P 2004The southwest Australian floristic region: Evolution and conservation of a global hot spot of biodiversityAnn Rev Ecol Evol35623650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Huenneke, LF 1990Effects of soil resources on plant invasion and community structure in Californian serpentine grasslandEcology71478491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. King, SA 2000Urbanization and exotic plants in northern Sydney streamsAustral Ecol25455461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lake, JC, Leishman, MR 2004Invasion success of exotic plants in natural ecosystems: the role of disturbance, plant attributes and freedom from herbivoresBiol Cons117215226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lambers, H, Juniper, D, Cawthray, GR, Veneklaas, EJ, Martinez, E 2002The pattern of carboxylate exudation in Banksia grandis (Proteaceae) is affected by the form of phosphate added to the soilPlant Soil238111122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lamont, BB 1982Mechanisms for enhacing nutrient uptake in plants, with particular reference to mediterranean South Africa and Western AustraliaBot Rev48597689Google Scholar
  35. Lamont, BB 1984

    Specialised modes of nutrition

    Pate, JSBeard, JS eds. Kwongan, plant life of the sandplainUniversity of Western Australian PressPerth126145
    Google Scholar
  36. Leishman, MR, Thomson, VP 2005Experimental evidence for the effects of additional water, nutrients and physical disturbance on invasive plants in low fertility sandstone soils, Sydney, AustraliaJ Ecol933849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McIntyre, S, Lavorel, S 1994Predicting richness of native, rare, and exotic plants in response to habitat and disturbance variables across a variegated landscapeCons Biol8521531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. McQuaker, NR, Brown, DF, Kluckner, PD 1979Digestion of environmental materials for analysis by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometryAnal Chem5110821084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Metson, AJ, Blakemore, LC, Rhoades, DA 1979Methods for the determination of soil organic carbon: a review and application to New Zealand soilsNew Zeal J Soil Sci22205228Google Scholar
  40. Milberg, P, Lamont, BB, Pérez-Fernández, MA 1999Survival and growth of native and exotic composites in response to a nutrient gradientPlant Ecol145125132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Montgomery, DC 2000Design and analysis of experiments5th ednWiley & SonsNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Murphy, J, Riley, JP 1962A modified single solution method for determination of phosphate in natural watersAnal Chim Acta273136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Myers, N, Mittermeier, RA, Mittermeier, CG, da Fonesca, GAB, Kent, J 2000Biodiversity hotspots for conservation prioritiesNature403853858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Parks, SE, Haigh, AM, Cresswell, GC 2000Stem tissue phosphorus as an index of the phosphorus status of Banksia ericifolia L.fPlant Soil2275965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pate, JS, Bell, TL 1999Application of the ecosystem mimic concept to the species-rich Banksia woodlands of Western AustraliaAgroforest Syst45303341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pate, JS, Carsson, NE, Rullo, J, Kuo, J 1985Biology of fire ephemerals of the sandplains of the kwongan of south-western AustraliaAust J Plant Physiol12641655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pate, JS, Dell, B 1984

    Economy of mineral nutrients in sandplain species

    Pate, JSBeard, JS eds. Kwongan plant life of the sandplainUniversity of Western Australia PressPerth227252
    Google Scholar
  48. Raunkiaer, C 1934The life forms of plantsOxford University PressOxfordGoogle Scholar
  49. Rayment, GE, Higginson, FR 1992

    Extractable Potassium

    Leydon, R eds. Australian Laboratory Handbook of Soil and Water Chemical MethodsInkata PressMelbourne
    Google Scholar
  50. Shane, MW, Lambers, H 2005Manganese accumulation in leaves of Hakea prostrata R.Br. (Proteaceae) and the significance of cluster roots for micronutrient uptake as dependent on phosphorus supplyPhysiol Plantarum124441450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sokal, RR, Rohlf, FJ 1981Biometry: the principles and practices of statistics in biological researchW. H. Freeman & CoSan FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  52. Specht, RL, Rayson, P, Jackman, ME 1958Dark Island heath (Ninety-Mile Plain, South Australia) VI Pyric succession: Changes in composition, coverage, dry weight, and mineral nutrient statusAust J Bot65988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Specht, RL, Specht, A 1999Australian plant communities dynamics of structure, growth and biodiversityOxford University PressMelbourneGoogle Scholar
  54. Thomson, VP, Leishman, MR 2004Survival of native plants of Hawkesbury Sandstone communities with additional nutrients: effect of plant age and habitatAust J Bot52141147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Trabaud, L 1983

    The effects of different fire regimes on soil nutrient levels in Quercus coccifera Garrigue

    Kruger, FJMitchell, DTJarvis, JUM eds. Mediterranean-type ecosystems. the role of nutrientsSpringer-VerlagBerlin-Heidelberg233243
    Google Scholar
  56. Wassen, MJ, Venterink, H, Lapshina, ED, Tanneberger, F 2005Endangered plants persist under phosphorus limitationNature437547550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Webb, LJ 1955A physiognomic classification of Australian rain forestsJ Ecol47551570Google Scholar
  58. Witkowski, ETF, Mitchell, DT, Stock, WD 1990Response of a cape fynbos ecosystem to nutrient additions: nutrient dynamics in fertilized soilsActa Oecol11165179Google Scholar
  59. Wycherley P (1984) People, fire and weeds: can the viscious spiral be broken? In: Moore SA (ed) The management of small bushland areas in the Perth metropolitan region. WA. Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Perth. pp. 11–17Google Scholar
  60. Yuen, SH, Pollard, AG 1954Determination of nitrogen in agricultural materials by the Nessler reagent. II. Micro-determinations in plant tissue and in soil extractsJ Sci Food Agric5364369Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Judith L. Fisher
    • 1
  • Erik J. Veneklaas
    • 1
  • Hans Lambers
    • 1
  • William A. Loneragan
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Plant BiologyThe University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia

Personalised recommendations