Advertisement

Plant and Soil

, Volume 266, Issue 1–2, pp 187–194 | Cite as

Nutrient status of vegetation grown in alkaline bauxite processing residue amended with gypsum and thermally dried sewage sludge - A two year field study

  • R. G. Courtney
  • J. P. Timpson
Article

Abstract

Although the treatments for overcoming the high pH and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) of bauxite residue are well known, there is little information on long-term nutrient management of vegetation after rehabilitation. The present study examined the chemical and physical amendment of fine fraction residue (red mud) at the Aughinish Alumina Ltd. Bayer Plant, Ireland followed by a two-year field investigation. Gypsum and sewage sludge were incorporated into the residue and amended mud sown with Lolium perenne and Holcus lanatus. Aerial portions were harvested and nutrient composition determined annually for the first two years growth. Amended substrate was low in manganese and magnesium. After year one herbage contained adequate calcium levels, but there were deficiencies for nitrogen, manganese, potassium and magnesium. Sodium levels were not considered excessive and levels declined further in year two. Levels for nitrogen, calcium, manganese, magnesium, phosphorous and potassium were also reduced in the second year. As levels were already deficient in year one the further decreases suggest severe nutrient shortage in the residue substrate. For long-term success of revegetation of bauxite residue, even after gypsum and organic amendment, the deficiencies of nutrients in the substrate must be overcome.

Key words

bauxite residue Holcus lanatus Lolium perenne nutrient deficiency revegetation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barber S A 1984 Manganese. In Soil Nutrient Bioavailability - A Mechanistic Approach, Wiley & Sons, London.Google Scholar
  2. Bernstein L 1974 Crop growth and salinity. In Drainage for Agriculture. Ed. J Van Schilfgaarde. Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  3. Bradshaw A, Dancer W S, Hanmdley J and Sheldon J 1975 Biology of land revegetation and reclamation of china clay wastes of Cornwall. In The ecology of resource degradation and renewal. Eds. M Chadwick and G T Goodman. Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  4. Brady E 1993 Revegetation and Environmental Management of Lead and Zinc Mine Tailings. MPhil Thesis, University of Liverpool.Google Scholar
  5. Bremner J M and Mulvaney C S 1982 Nitrogen - Total. In Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2. Ed. A L Page. pp. 595–624. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison.Google Scholar
  6. Chapman H D 1966 Diagnostic criteria for plants and soils. University of California, California USA.Google Scholar
  7. Follett R H and Lindsay W L 1970 Profile distribution of zinc, iron, manganese and copper in Colorado soils. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 110, Colorado State University.Google Scholar
  8. Gherardi M J and Rengel Z 2001 Deep placement of manganese fertiliser improves sustainability of lucerne growing on bauxite residue: A glasshouse study. Plant Soil 257, 85–95.Google Scholar
  9. Gherardi M J and Rengel Z 2003 Bauxite residue sand has the capacity to rapidly decrease availability of added manganese. Plant Soil 234, 143–151.Google Scholar
  10. Gupta R and Abrol I P 1990 Reclamation and management of alkali soils. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 60, 1–16.Google Scholar
  11. Haby V A, Russelle M P and Skogley E A 1990 Testing soils for potassium, calcium, and magnesium. In Soil Testing and Plant Analysis 3rd ed. Ed. R L Westerman. pp. 229–264. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison.Google Scholar
  12. Knudsen D, Peterson G A and Pratt P 1982 Lithium, sodium and potassium. In Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Ed. A L Page. pp. 225–246. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison.Google Scholar
  13. Lindsay W L and Norvell W A 1978 Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese and copper. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 42, 421–428.Google Scholar
  14. Marschner B 1983 The reclamation of fine textured bauxite residues using alkaline and aluminium tolerant grasses with organic and chemical amedments, M.Sc Thesis, Dept. of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Duke University, Durham.Google Scholar
  15. Meecham J and Bell L 1977 Revegetation of alumina refinery wastes. 1. Properties and amelioration of the materials. Austral. J. Exp. Agricult. Animal Husb. 17, 679–688.Google Scholar
  16. Mehrotra N K, Khana V K and Agarwal S C 1986 Soil sodicityinduced zinc deficiency in maize. Plant Soil 92, 63–71.Google Scholar
  17. Munshower F F 1994 Practical Handbook of Disturbed Land Revegetation. Lewis Publishers, CRC Press, Florida.Google Scholar
  18. Reuter D J and Robinson J B 1997 Plant analysis, an Interpretation Manual. 2nd Ed., CSIRO, Australia.Google Scholar
  19. Richards L A 1954 Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkaline soils. United States Salinity Laboratory, California.Google Scholar
  20. Rogers P A and Murphy W 2000 Levels of dry matter, major elements and trace elements in Irish grass, Silage and Hay. Teagasc Publications, Wexford.Google Scholar
  21. Rowell D 1994 Soil Acidity and Alkalinity in Soil Science: Methods and Applications. Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  22. Sumner M and Naidu R 1998 Sodic Soils: Distribution, Properties, Management, and Environmental Consequences (Topics in Sustainable Agronomy). Oxford University Press Inc, USA.Google Scholar
  23. Thomas G W 1982 Exchangeable Cations. In Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Ed. A L Page. pp. 159–165. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison.Google Scholar
  24. Tierney P 1998 An investigation into the ecological status of metalliferous mine tailings sites in counties Galway, Sligo and Tipperary, MSc Thesis, School of Science, Institute of Technology, Sligo.Google Scholar
  25. Williamson N A, Johnson M S and Bradshaw A D 1982 Mine Wastes Reclamation. Mining Journal Books, London.Google Scholar
  26. Wong J and Ho G 1991 Effects of gypsum and sewage sludge amendment on physical properties of fine bauxite residue. Soil Sci. 152, 326–321.Google Scholar
  27. Wong J and Ho G 1993 Use of waste gypsum in the revegetation on red mud deposits: A greenhouse study. Waste Manage. Res. 11, 249–256.Google Scholar
  28. Wong J and Ho G 1994 Effectiveness of acidic industrial wastes for reclaiming fine bauxite refining residue. Soil Sci. 158, 2.Google Scholar
  29. Wong M H and Lai K W 1982 Application of activated sludge for improving iron-ore tailings. Reclam. Reveget. Res. 1, 83–87.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. G. Courtney
    • 1
  • J. P. Timpson
    • 1
  1. 1.School of ScienceInstitute of Technology - SligoIreland

Personalised recommendations