Advertisement

Plant and Soil

, Volume 283, Issue 1–2, pp 99–117 | Cite as

Water Uptake by Plant Roots: II – Modelling of Water Transfer in the Soil Root-system with Explicit Account of Flow within the Root System – Comparison with Experiments

  • Claude DoussanEmail author
  • Alain Pierret
  • Emmanuelle Garrigues
  • Loïc Pagès
Rhizosphere - Perspectives and Challenges - A Tribute to Lorenz Hiltner

Abstract

Soil water uptake by plant roots results from the complex interplay between plant and soil which modulates and determines transport processes at a range of spatial and temporal scales: at small scales, uptake rates are determined by local soil and root hydraulic properties but, at the plant scale, local processes interact within the root system and are integrated through the hydraulic architecture of the root system and plant transpiration. However, because of the inherent complexity of the root system (both structural and functional), plant roots are commonly account for with synthetic but over-simplifying descriptors, valid at a given spatial scale. In this article, we present a model describing both soil and plant processes involved in water uptake at the scale of the whole root system with explicit account of individual roots. This is achieved through the unifying concepts of root system architecture and hydraulic continuity between the soil and plant. The model is based on a combination of architectural, root system hydraulic and soil water transfer modelling. The model can reproduce qualitatively and quantitatively laboratory experimental data obtained from imaging of water uptake by light transmission (cf. Garrigues et al., Water uptake by plant roots: I-Formation and propagation of a water extraction front in mature root systems as evidenced by 2D light transmission imaging. Plant and soil (2006, this issue) or X-ray imaging for two soil types (a sand/clay mix and a sandy clay loam) and different narrow-leaf lupin root systems (taprooted and fibrous), using independently measured soil–plant parameters. Results of the experiments and modelling reported in this paper concur to show that a water extraction front formed on the root system. This uptake front’s spatial extension and propagation were closely related to the local dependence between root and soil hydraulic properties and root axial conductance. Hence, a sharp front formed in the sand/clay mix but was much more attenuated in the sandy loam. Comparison between taprooted and fibrous root systems grown in a sand/clay mix, show that the taprooted architecture induced a more spatially concentrated uptake zone (near the soil surface) with higher flux rates, but with xylem water potential at the base of the root system twice as low than in the fibrous architecture. Modelling provided evidence that hydraulic lift might have occurred when transpiration declined, particularly in soil prone to abrupt variations in soil water potential (sand/clay mix). Finally, such a model, explicitly coupling root system-soil water transfers, can be useful to study water uptake in relation with root architectural traits, distribution of root hydraulic conductance or influence of heterogeneous conditions (localised irrigation, root clumping).

Keywords

architecture hydraulic conductance model root system water uptake 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adiku, S G, Rose, C W, Braddock, R D, Ozier-Lafontaine, H 2000On the simulation of root water extraction: examination of a minimum energy hypothesisSoil Sci.165226236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alm, D M, Cavelier, J, Nobel, P S 1992A finite-element model of radial and axial conductivities for individual roots: development and validation for two desert succulentsAnn. Bot.698792Google Scholar
  3. Amato, M, Ritchie, J T 2002Spatial distribution of roots and water uptake of Maize (Zea mays L.) as affected by soil structureCrop Sci.42773780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arya L M 2002 Wind, hot air methods. In Methods of Soil Analysis – Part 4 – Physical Methods, Eds. J H Dane, G C Topp, SSSA book series no. 5: 916–925Google Scholar
  5. Brisson, N, Gary, C, Justes, E, Roche, R, Mary, B, Ripoche, D, Zimmer, D, Sierra, J, Bertuzzi, P, Burger, P, Bussiere, F, Cabidoche, Y M, Cellier, P, Debaeke, P, Gaudillere, J P, Henault, C, Maraux, F, Seguin, B, Sinoquet, H 2003An overview of the crop model STICSEuro. J. Agron.18309332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Caldwell, M C, Dawson, T E, Richard, J H 1998Hydraulic lift: consequences of water efflux from roots of plantsOecologia113151161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clausnitzer, V, Hopmans, J W 1994Simultaneous modeling of transient 3-dimensional root-growth and soil–water flowPlant Soil164299314Google Scholar
  8. Clements, J C, White, P F, Buirchell, B J 1993The root morphology of Lupinus-Angustifolius in relation to other Lupinus speciesAust. J. Agri. Res.4413671375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clothier, B E, Green, S R 1997Roots: the big movers of water and chemical in soilsSoil Sci.162534543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dardanelli, J L, Ritchie, J T, Calmon, M, Andriani, J M, Collino, D J 2004An empirical model for root water uptakeField Crops Res.875971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Diggle, A J 1988ROOTMAP: A model in three-dimensional coordinates of the growth and strcuture of fibrous root systemsPlant Soil105169178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Doussan, C, Pages, L, Pierret, A 2003Soil exploration and resource acquisition by plant roots: an architectural and modelling point of viewAgronomie23419431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Doussan, C, Pages, L, Vercambre, G 1998aModelling of the␣hydraulic architecture of root systems: An integrated approach to water absorption – Model descriptionAnnl. Bot.81213223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Doussan, C, Vercambre, G, Pages, L 1998bModelling of the␣hydraulic architecture of root systems: An integrated approach to water absorption – Distribution of axial and radial conductances in maizeAnnl. Bot.81225232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Doussan, C, Vercambre, G, Pages, L 1999Water uptake by two contrasting root systems (maize, peach tree): results from a model of hydraulic architectureAgronomie19255263Google Scholar
  16. Dunbabin, V M, Diggle, A J, Rengel, Z, Hugten, R 2002aModelling the interactions between water and nutrient uptake and root growthPlant Soil2391938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dunbabin, V M, Diggle, A J, Rengel, Z 2002bSimulation of field data by a basic three-dimensional model of interactive root growthPlant Soil2393954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Frensch, J, Steudle, E 1989Axial and radial hydraulic resistance to roots of maize (Zea mays L.)Plant Physiol.91719726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Gardner, W R 1960Dynamic aspects of water availability to plantsSoil Sci.896373Google Scholar
  20. Garrigues, E 2002Prélèvements hydriques par une architecture racinaire: imagerie quantitative et modélisation des transferts d’eau dans le système sol-plantePh.D. ThesisINA–PG143Google Scholar
  21. Garrigues E, Doussan C, Pierret A 2006 Water uptake by plant roots: I- Formation and propagation of a water extraction front in mature root systems as evidenced by 2D light tranzsmission imaging. Plant Soil 283, 83–98Google Scholar
  22. Herklerath, W N, Miller, N, Gardner, W R 1977Water uptake by plant roots: 1. Divided root experimentsSoil Sci. Soc. Am. J.4110331038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Homaee, M, Feddes, R A, Dirksen, C 2002A macroscopic water extraction model for nonuniform transient salinity and water stressSoil Sci. Soc. Am. J.6617641772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hopmans, J W, Bristow, K L 2002Current capabilities and future needs of root water and nutrient uptake modelingAdv. Agron.77103183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jensen, C R, Svendsen, H, Andersen, M N, Lösch, R 1993Use of the root contact concept, an empirical leaf conductance model and pressure-volume curves in simulating crop water relationsPlant Soil149126Google Scholar
  26. Jourdan, C, Rey, H 1997Modelling and simulation of the architecture and development of the oil-palm (Elais guinensis Jacq.) root sytem I.–The modelPlant Soil190235246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lai, C, Katul, G 2000The dynamic role of root-water uptake in coupling potential to actual transpirationAdv. Water Res.23427439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Landsberg, J, Fowkes, N D 1978Water movement trough plantsAnnl. Bot.42493508Google Scholar
  29. Li, Y, Fuchs, M, Cohen, S, Cohen, Y, Wallach, R 2002aWater uptake profile response of corn to soil moisture depletionPlant Cell Environ.25491500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Li, Y, Wallach, R, Cohen, Y 2002bThe role of soil hydraulic conductivity on the spatial and temporal variation of root water uptake in drip-irrigated cornPlant Soil243131142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lynch, J P, Nielsen, K L, Davis, R D, Jablokow, A G 1997SimRoot: Modelling and visualization of root systemsPlant Soil188139151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Moldrup, P, Rolston, E, Hansen, J A, Yamaguchi, T 1992A simple mechanistic model for soil resistance to plant water uptakeSoil Sci.1538793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Molz, F J 1981Models of water transport in the soil–plant system: a reviewWater Resources Research1712451260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. North, G B, Nobel, P S 1995Hydraulic conductivity of concentric root tissues of Agave deserti Engelm. under wet and drying conditionsNew Phytol.1304757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pages, L, Jordan, M O, Picard, D 1989A simulation model of the three-dimensional architecture of the maize root systemPlant Soil119147154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Passioura, J B 1991Soil structure and plant growthAust. J. Soil Res.29717728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pierret, A, Doussan, C, Garrigues, E, Mc Kirby, J 2003aObserving plant roots in their environment: current imaging options and specific contribution of two-dimensional approachesAgronomie23471479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pierret, A, Kirby, M, Moran, C 2003bSimultaneous X-ray imaging of plant root growth and water uptake in thin-slab systemsPlant Soil255361373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Press W, Teukolsky S A, Wetterling W T, Falnnery B P 2001, Numerical Recipes in Fortran 77, Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  40. Reid, J B, Huck, G 1990Diurnal variation of crop hydraulic resistance: a new analysisAgronomy journal82827834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rose, D A 1968Water movement in porous materials. III: Evaporation of water from soilBrit. J. Appl. Phys.117791791Google Scholar
  42. Rubio, G, Walk, T, Ge, Z Y, Yan, X L, Liao, H, Lynch, J␣P 2001Root gravitropism and below-ground competition among neighbouring plants: A modelling approachAnnl. Bot.88929940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Somma, F, Hopmans, J W, Clausnitzer, V 1998Transient three-dimensional modeling of soil water and solute transport with simultaneous root growth, root water and nutrient uptakePlant Soil202281293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sperry, J S, Adler, F R, Campbell, G S, Comstock, J P 1998Limitation of plant water use by rhizophere and xylem conductance: results from a modelPlant, Cell Environ.21347359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tamari, S, Bruckler, L, Halbertsma, J, Chadoeuf, J 1993A Simple Method for Determining soil hydraulic-properties in the laboratorySoil Sci. Soc. Am. J.57642651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tardieu, F, Bruckler, L, Lafolie, F 1992Root clumping may affect the root water potential and the resistance to soil–root water transportPlant Soil140291301Google Scholar
  47. Tidwell, V C, Glass, R J 1994X-Ray and visible-light transmission for laboratory measurement of 2-dimensional saturation fields in thin-slab systemsWater Res. Res.3028732882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Genuchten, M T 1980A closed-form equation for predicting hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soilsSoil Sci. Soc. Am. J.44892898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Vrugt, J A, Wijk, M T, Hopmans, J W, Simunek, J 2001One-, two-, and three-dimensional root water uptake functions for transient modelingWater Res. Res.3724572470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wang, E L, Smith, C J 2004Modelling the growth and water uptake function of plant root systems: a reviewAust. J. Agri. Res.55501523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wilderotter, O 2003An adaptive numerical method for the Richards equation with root growthPlant Soil251255267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wu, J, Zhang, R, Gui, S 1999Modeling soil water movement with water uptake by rootsPlant and Soil215717CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claude Doussan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alain Pierret
    • 1
  • Emmanuelle Garrigues
    • 2
  • Loïc Pagès
    • 3
  1. 1.INRAUnité Climat, Sol, EnvironnementSite AgroparcFrance
  2. 2.INRA/INA-PGUnité Environnement et Grandes CulturesThiverval-GrignonFrance
  3. 3.INRAUnité PSHSite AgroparcFrance

Personalised recommendations