Advertisement

Plant and Soil

, Volume 272, Issue 1–2, pp 87–100 | Cite as

Longer coleoptiles improve emergence through crop residues to increase seedling number and biomass in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

  • G. J. Rebetzke
  • S. E. Bruce
  • J. A. Kirkegaard
Article

Abstract

Crop residues protect soils from erosion, reduce soil water evaporation and increase soil organic matter. Yet management of stubbles for cropping can be difficult. Surface-retained residue can act as a mechanical barrier to slow emergence and reduce seedling biomass. Longer coleoptiles improve seedling emergence with deep sowing and may assist where stubble load is large. In a glasshouse study, six wheat and barley genotypes were sown at 30 and 50 mm depth into pots containing pasteurised soil. Unweathered sorghum, canola and wheat stubble were added at 0, 3 and 6 t/ha equivalents to the soil surface and pots watered above or below the stubble. Stubble species and watering regime had little effect on seedling growth. However, deeper sowing and increased stubble mass adversely affected most seedling characteristics particularly slowing seedling emergence and reducing tiller number to decrease plant biomass (environmental correlations (re) of −0.98** and 0.88**, respectively). Shorter coleoptile Rht-B1b wheats ‘Banks’ and ‘Janz’, and barley ‘Beecher’ emerged slower and abnormally with thicker stubble, and had more sterile tillers to reduce total tiller number and biomass. Deeper crowns for these genotypes also resulted in proportionally less biomass located above the stubble. The converse was true of long coleoptile ‘Vigour 18’, ‘Halberd’, and its Rht8 progeny, ‘HM14bS’ which were less affected by stubble mass and sowing depth. In a corresponding field study, increasing wheat stubble mass from 0 to 3 and 6 t/ha delayed seedling emergence and decreased plant number to reduce biomass. Short coleoptile wheat genotypes ‘Hartog’ and ‘Janz’ emerged slower and produced less biomass at 3 and 6 t/ha of stubble than long coleoptile wheat genotypes ‘Halberd’ and ‘HM14bS’. Emergence of seedlings sown at 50 mm depth with 6 t/ha overlying stubble was similar to that sown at 120 mm with no stubble, reflecting the similar impact of retained residues to deep sowing. Genetic variation for coleoptile length and availability of gibberellin-responsive dwarfing genes such as Rht8 will allow development of long coleoptile wheats for deep sowing or where stubble retention is practiced.

Keywords

breeding coleoptile dwarfing genes early vigour establishment germplasm 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aase, J K., Siddoway, F H. 1980Stubble height effects on seasonal microclimate, water balance, and plant development of no-till winter wheatAgric. Forest Meteor.21120Google Scholar
  2. Allan, R E 1989Agronomic comparisons between Rht1 and Rht2 semidwarf genes in winter wheatCrop Sci.2911031108Google Scholar
  3. Angus, J F, Mackenzie, D H, Morton, R, Schafer, C A 1981Phasic development in field crops. II. Thermal and photoperiodic responses of spring wheatField Crops Res.4269283Google Scholar
  4. Botwright, T L, Rebetzke, G J, Condon, A G, Richards, R A 2001The effect of rht genotype and temperature on coleoptile growth and dry matter partitioning in young wheat seedlingsAust. J. Plant Phys.15417423Google Scholar
  5. Bruce, S E 2003Poor growth of canola in retained wheat stubble – causes consequences and controlCharles Sturt UniversityWaggaPhD thesisGoogle Scholar
  6. Cannell, R Q, Hawes, J D 1994Trends in tillage practices in relation to sustainable crop production with special reference to temperate climatesSoil Till. Res.30245282Google Scholar
  7. Chastain, T G, Ward, K J, Wysocki, D J 1995Stand establishment responses of soft white winter wheat to seedbed residue and seed sizeCrop Sci.35213218Google Scholar
  8. Cheong, J, Wallwork, H F, Williams, K J 2004Identification of a major QTL for yellow spot resistance in the wheat varieties Brookton and CranbrookAust. J. Agric. Res.55315319Google Scholar
  9. hristian, D G, Bacon, E T G, Brockie, D, Glen, D, Gutteridge, R J, Jenkyn, J F 1999Interactions of straw disposal methods and direct drilling or cultivations on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown on a clay soilJ. Agric. Eng. Res.73297309Google Scholar
  10. Coleman, R K, Gill, G S, Rebetzke, G J 2001Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for traits conferring weed competitiveness in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). AustJ. Agric. Res.5212351246Google Scholar
  11. Cornish, P S 1987Crop and pasture plant selection for new cultural systemsCornish, P SPratley, J E eds. Tillage – New Directions in Australian AgricultureInkata PressMelbourne355378Google Scholar
  12. Donaldson, E, Schillinger, W F, Dofing, S M 2001Straw production and grain yield relationships in winter wheatCrop Sci.41100106Google Scholar
  13. Elliot, L F, Cochran, V L., Papendick, R I 1981Wheat residue and nitrogen placement effects on wheat growth in the greenhouseSoil Sci.1314852Google Scholar
  14. Ellis, M H, Rebetzke, G J, Chandler, P, Bonnett, D G, Spielmeyer, W, Richards, R A 2004The effect of different height reducing genes on the early growth of wheatFunc. Plant Biol.31583589Google Scholar
  15. Felton, W L, Freebairn, D M, Fettell, N A., Thomas, J B 1987Crop residue managementCornish, P SPratley, J E eds. Tillage – New Directions in Australian AgricultureInkata PressMelbourne171193Google Scholar
  16. Fick, G N, Qualset, C O 1976Seedling emergence, coleoptile length, and plant height relationships in crosses of dwarf and standard-height wheatsEuphytica25679684Google Scholar
  17. Gan, Y, Stobbe, E H, Moes, J 1992Relative date of wheat seedling emergence and its impact on grain yieldCrop Sci.3212751281Google Scholar
  18. Guérif, J, Richard, G, Dürr, C, Machet, J M, Recous, S., Roger-Estrade, J 2001A review of tillage effects on crop residue management, seedbed conditions and seedling establishmentSoil Till. Res.611332Google Scholar
  19. Hadjichristodoulou, A, Della, A, Photiades, J 1977Effect of sowing depth on plant establishment, tillering capacity and other agronomic characters of cerealsJ. Agric. Sci.89161167Google Scholar
  20. Hoogendoorn, J, Rickson, J M., Gale, M D 1990Differences in leaf and stem anatomy related to plant height of tall and dwarf wheatJ. Plant Physiol.1367277Google Scholar
  21. Hughes KA., Mitchel WJP. (1987). The relationship of coleoptile length and plant height with establishment of cereals under zero-tillage. In Proceedings Annual Conference New Zealand Agronomy Society, Vol. 17, pp. 67–70. DSIR, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  22. Jessop, R S, Stewart, L W 1983Effects of crop residues, soil type and temperature on emergence and early growth of wheatPlant Soil74101109Google Scholar
  23. Kasperbauer, M J, Hunt, P G 1992Root size and shoot/root ratio as influenced by light environment of the shootJ. Plant Nutr.15685697Google Scholar
  24. Keyes, G J, Paolillo, D J, Sorrells, M E 1989The effects of dwarfing genes Rht1 and Rht2 on cellular dimensions and rate of leaf elongation in wheatAnn. Bot.64683690Google Scholar
  25. Kirkegaard, J A 1995A review of trends in wheat yield responses to conservation cropping in AustraliaAust. J. Exp. Agric.35835848Google Scholar
  26. Klepper, B, Rickman, R W, Peterson, C M 1982Quantitative characterization of vegetative development in small cereal grainsAgron. J.74789792Google Scholar
  27. López-Castañeda, C., Richards, R A. 1994Variation in temperate cereals in rainfed environments. 3. Water use and water-use efficiencyField Crops Res.398598Google Scholar
  28. Mahdi, L, Bell, C J, Ryan, J 1998Establishment and yield of wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) after early sowing at various depths in a semi-arid Mediterranean environmentField Crops Res.58187196Google Scholar
  29. Matsui, T, Inanaga, S, Shimotashiro, T, An, P, Sugimoto, Y. 2002Morphological characters related to varietal differences in tolerance to deep sowing in wheatPlant Prod. Sci.5169174Google Scholar
  30. Mode, C J, Robinson, H F 1959Pleiotropism and the genetic variance and covarianceBiomarkers15518537Google Scholar
  31. Mohanty, M, Painuli, D K 2004Modeling rice seedling emergence and growth under tillage and residue management in a rice-wheat system on a Vertisol in Central IndiaSoil Till. Res.76167174Google Scholar
  32. Rebetzke, G J, Richards, R A, Fischer, V M., Mickelson, B J 1999Breeding long coleoptile, reduced height wheatsEuphytica106159168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rebetzke, G J, Richards, R A. 2000Gibberellic acid-sensitive dwarfing genes reduce plant height to increase seed number and grain yield of wheatAust. J. Agric. Res.51235245Google Scholar
  34. Rebetzke, G J, Appels, R, Morrison, A, Richards, R A, McDonald, G, Ellis, M H, Spielmeyer, W, Bonnett, D G 2001Quantitative trait loci on chromosome 4B for coleoptile length and early vigour in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). AustJ. Agric. Res.5212211234Google Scholar
  35. Rebetzke, G J, Richards, R A, Morrison, A D, Sirault, X R R 2004Genetic analysis of coleoptile length and diameter of wheatAust. J. Agric. Res.55733743Google Scholar
  36. Rickman, R W, Klepper, B L, Peterson, C M 1983Time distributions for describing appearance of specific culms of winter wheatAgron. J.75551556Google Scholar
  37. SAS Institute Inc. 1990 SAS/STAT® User’s Guide, Vers. 6. 4th ed. Vol. 1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NCGoogle Scholar
  38. Schillinger, W F, Donaldson, E, Allan, R E, Jones, S S 1998Winter wheat seedling emergence from deep sowing depthsAgron. J.90582586Google Scholar
  39. Swan, J B, Kaspar, T C, Erbach, D C 1996Seed-row residue management for corn establishment in the northern US Corn BeltSoil Till. Res.405572Google Scholar
  40. Unger, P W 1990Conservation tillage systemsAdv. Soil Sciences132768Google Scholar
  41. Waddington, S R, Ransom, J K, Osmanzai, M, Saunders, D A 1986Improvement in the yield potential of bread wheat adapted to northwest MexicoCrop Sci.26698703Google Scholar
  42. Worland, AJ, Korzun, V, Röder, MS, Ganal, MW, Law, CN 1998Genetic analysis of the dwarfing gene Rht8 in wheat. Part II. The distribution and adaptive significance of allelic variants at the Rht8 locus of wheat as revealed by microsatellite screening.TAG9611101120Google Scholar
  43. Wuest, S B, Albrecht, S L., Skirvin, K W 2000Crop residue position and interference with wheat seedling developmentSoil Till. Res.55175182Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. J. Rebetzke
    • 1
  • S. E. Bruce
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. A. Kirkegaard
    • 1
  1. 1.CSIRO Plant IndustryCanberraAustralia
  2. 2.CSIRO Sustainable EcosystemsCanberraAustralia

Personalised recommendations