Advertisement

Plant and Soil

, Volume 271, Issue 1–2, pp 91–107 | Cite as

The effect of woodland soil translocation on carbon and nitrogen mineralisation processes

  • Marja Hietalahti
  • G. Cadisch
  • G. P. BuckleyEmail author
Article

Abstract

Two investigations into the translocation of temperate deciduous woodland soil were carried out in Kent, S. E. England, to study the effects on C and N mineralisation. In the field experiment, two translocation methods were compared: (i) placement, moving soil as an intact surface profile and (ii) loose-tipping in which the surface profile was mixed. These were implemented in winter both in situ (under the woodland canopy) and ex situ (soil moved to a receptor site outside woodland). In a second experiment, intact soil cores from the woodland site were subjected to different levels of disturbance in a polythene tunnel environment. Measurements of soil CO2 evolution and N mineralisation in both experiments showed a clear seasonal pattern, strongly influenced by temperature. Over a 7-month period, cumulative net N mineralisation in the field was greater in the woodland controls and placement treatments than loose-tipping treatments. Soil CO2 emissions were also greater in woodland control plots in the winter compared with ex situ treatments. Similarly, in the polythene tunnel environment, CO2 emissions were highest in the undisturbed soil cores, while N mineralisation varied with soil depth but, across the whole profile, was also greater in the controls. We conclude that the mixing of organic rich topsoil with mineral subsoil in clayey soil may have protected the organic residues on the clay-silt surfaces, resulting in overall lower mineralisation rates in the disturbed soil. These results indicate that N mineralisation does not necessarily increase when soil translocation operations are carried out on clayey soils in winter. Placement methods appeared the most likely to conserve soil mineralisation processes close to those in undisturbed woodland soil, but depend greatly on the success of maintaining the soil profile intact. It appears that, on clayey soils, the development of vegetation at the receptor site is more likely to be determined by alterations in the light, soil temperature and moisture regime that will occur in open conditions after woodland translocation than from increased soil N supply.

Keywords

forest habitat translocation method loose tipping net mineralisation organic matter protection respiration soil disturbance 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, M A, Polglase, P J, Attiwill, P M, Weston, C J 1989In situ studies of nitrogen mineralization and uptake in forest soils; some comments on methodologySoil Biol. Biochem.21423429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, P 2003A Review of Habitat TranslocationHighways AgencyCIRIA C601, London244Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, J M, Ingram, J S I 1993Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility: A Handbook of MethodsCAB International, Information PressEynsham221Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, T-H, Gray, T R G 1991The influence of soil organic carbon on microbial growth and survivalWilson, W S eds. Advances in Soil Organic Matter Research: The Impact on Agriculture and the EnvironmentThe Royal Society of ChemistryCambridge253266Google Scholar
  5. Ash, J E, Barkham, J P 1976Changes and variability in the field layer of a coppiced woodland in Norfolk, EnglandJ. Ecol.64697712Google Scholar
  6. Baggs, E M, Rees, R M, Smith, K A, Vinten, A J A 2000Nitrous oxide emission from soils after incorporating crop residuesSoil Use Manage168287Google Scholar
  7. Baggs, E M, Stevenson, M, Pihlatie, M, Regar, A, Cook, H, Cadisch, G 2003Nitrous oxide emissions following application of residues and fertiliser under zero and conventional tillagePlant Soil254361370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ball, B C, Scott, A, Parker, J P 1999Field N2O, CO2 and CH4 fluxes in relation to tillage, compaction and soil quality in ScotlandSoil Till. Res.532939Google Scholar
  9. Balesdent, J, Chenu, C, Balabane, M 2000Relationship of soil organic matter dynamics to physical protection and tillageSoil Till. Res.53215230Google Scholar
  10. Bauhus, J, Barthel, R 1995Mechanisms for carbon and nutrient release and retention in beech forest gaps. II. The role of soil microbial biomassPlant Soil168585592Google Scholar
  11. Bauhus, J, Bartsch, N 1995Mechanisms for carbon and nutrient release and retention in beech forest gaps. I. Microclimate, water balance and seepage water chemistryPlant Soil168579584Google Scholar
  12. Beare, M H, Cabrera, M L, Hendrix, P F, Coleman, D C 1994Aggregate-protected and unprotected organic-matter pools in conventional-tillage and no-tillage soilsSoil Sci. Soc. Am. J.58787795Google Scholar
  13. Binkley, D, Hart, S C 1989The components of nitrogen availability assessment in forest soilsAdv. Soil Sci.1057112Google Scholar
  14. Bouyoucos, G J 1962Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analysis of soilsAgron. J.54464465Google Scholar
  15. Box, J 1999Habitat translocation and mineral workingsMineral Plan.791114Google Scholar
  16. Bullock, J M 1998Community translocation in Britain: setting objectives and measuring consequencesBiol. Conserv.84199214Google Scholar
  17. Burger, J A, Pritchett, W L 1984Effects of clearfelling and site preparation on nitrogen mineralization in a Southern pine standSoil Sci. Soc. Am. J.4814321437Google Scholar
  18. Byrne S 1990 Habitat transplantation in England: a review of the extent and nature of the practice and the techniques employed. England Field Unit Project No. 104. 96 ppGoogle Scholar
  19. Collins, B S, Dunne, K P, Pickett, S T A 1985Responses of forest herbs to canopy gapsPickett, S T AWhite, P S eds. The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patch DynamicsAcademic PressNew York217234Google Scholar
  20. Côté, L, Brown, S, Paré, D, Fyles, J, Bauhus, J 2000Dynamics of carbon and nitrogen mineralization in relation to stand type, stand age and soil texture in the boreal mixedwoodSoil Biol. Biochem.3210791090Google Scholar
  21. De Boer, W, Hunscheid, M P J, Schotman, J M T, Troelstra, S R, Laanbroek, H J 1993In situ net N transformations in pine, fir and oak stands of different ages on acid sandy soil three years after limingBiol. Fert. Soils15120126Google Scholar
  22. Dulohery, C J, Morris, L A, Lowrance, R 1996Assessing forest soil disturbance through biogenic gas fluxesSoil Sci. Soc. Am. J.60291298Google Scholar
  23. Emmerling, C, Eisenbeis, G 1998Influence of modern soil restoration techniques on litter decomposition in forest soilsAppl. Soil Ecol.9501507Google Scholar
  24. Goovaerts, P, Chiang, C N 1993Temporal persistence of spatial patterns for mineralizable nitrogen and selected soil propertiesSoil Sci. Soc. Am. J.57372381Google Scholar
  25. Hassink, J 1997The capacity of soils to preserve organic C and N by their association with clay and silt particlesPlant Soil1917787Google Scholar
  26. Helliwell, D R, Buckley, G P, Fordham, S J, Paul, T A 1996Vegetation succession on a relocated ancient woodland soilForestry695774Google Scholar
  27. Hendrickson, O Q, Robinson, J B 1984Effects of roots and litter on mineralization processes in forest soilPlant Soil80391405Google Scholar
  28. Hietalahti M 2003 Habitat transfer: ecological implications of re-locating ancient woodland. PhD thesis, Imperial College, University of London. 296 ppGoogle Scholar
  29. Högberg, P, Nordgren, A, Buchmann, N, Taylor, A F S, Ekblad, A, Högberg, M N, Nyberg, G, Ottosson-Löfvenius, M, Read, D J 2001Large-scale forest girdling shows that current photosynthesis drives soil respirationNature411789792CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Jefferson R G, Gibson C W D, Leach S J, Pulteney C M, Wolton R, Robertson H J 1999 The habitat translocation: the case study of Brooks Farm, Devon. English Nature Research Report No. 304. English Nature, PeterboroughGoogle Scholar
  31. Kladivko, E J 2001Tillage systems and soil ecologySoil Till. Res.616176Google Scholar
  32. Krause, H H, Ramlal, D 1987In situ nutrient extraction by resin from forested, clear-cut and site-prepared soilCan. J. Soil Sci.67943952Google Scholar
  33. Lessard, R, Rochette, P, Topp, E, Pattey, E, Desjardins, R L, Beaumont, G 1994Methane and carbon dioxide fluxes from poorly drained adjacent cultivated and forest sitesCan. J. Soil Sci.74139146Google Scholar
  34. Likens, G E, Bormann, R S 1995Biogeochemistry of a Forested Ecosystem2Springer VerlagNew York, USA159Google Scholar
  35. MacDonald, N W, Zak, D R, Pregitzer, K S 1995Temperature effects on kinetics of microbial respiration and net nitrogen and sulphur mineralizationSoil Sci. Soc. Am. J.59233240Google Scholar
  36. MacDuff, J H, White, R E 1985Net mineralization and nitrification rates in a clay soil measured and predicted in permanent grassland from soil temperature and moisture contentPlant Soil86151172Google Scholar
  37. Matson, P A, Boone, R D 1984Natural disturbance and nitrogen mineralization: wave-form dieback of mountain hemlock in the Oregon cascadesEcology6515111516Google Scholar
  38. McRae, S G 1997Land reclamation after open-pit mineral extraction in BritainWong, M HBaker, A eds. Remediation and Management of Degraded LandsLewish PublishersFlorida, Boca Raton4762Google Scholar
  39. Mladenoff, D J 1987Dynamics of nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in hemlock and hardwood treefall gapsEcology6811711180Google Scholar
  40. Nadelhoffer, K J, Aber, J D, Melillo, J M 1984Seasonal patterns of ammonium and nitrate uptake in nine temperate forest ecosystemsPlant Soil80321335Google Scholar
  41. Paul, E A, Clark, F E 1996Soil Microbiology and Biochemistry2Academic PressCalifornia, USA340Google Scholar
  42. Power, J F, Peterson, G A 1998Nitrogen transformations, utilization, and conservation as affected by fallow tillage methodSoil Till. Res.493747Google Scholar
  43. Prichard, C, Phillips, P, Jones, A, Reid, C 1994Kent Inventory of Ancient Woods (provisional)English NaturePeterborough69Google Scholar
  44. Raison, R J, Connell, M J, Khanna, P K 1987Methodology for studying fluxes of soil mineral-N in situSoil Biol. Biochem.19521530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rodwell, J S 1991British Plant Communities, Vol. I: Woodlands and ScrubCambridge University PressCambridge395Google Scholar
  46. Scott, A, Ball, B C, Crichton, I J, Aitken, M N 2000Nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions from grassland amended with sewage sludgeSoil Use Manage.163641Google Scholar
  47. Smolander, A, Priha, O, Paavolainen, L, Steer, J, Mälkönen, E 1998Nitrogen and carbon transformations before and after clear-cutting in repeatedly N-fertilized and limed forest soilSoil Biol. Biochem.30477490Google Scholar
  48. Stark, J M, Hart, S C 1997High rates of nitrification and nitrate turnover in undisturbed coniferous forestsNature3856164Google Scholar
  49. Tate, K R, Ross, D J, O’Brien, B J, Kelliher, F M 1993Carbon storage and turnover, and respiratory activity, in the litter and soil of an old-growth southern beech (Nothofagus) forestSoil Biol. Biochem.2516011612Google Scholar
  50. Thomas, S M, Whitehead, D, Adams, J A, Reid, J B, Sherlock, R R, Leckie, A C 1996Seasonal root distribution and soil surface carbon fluxes for one-year-old Pinus radiata trees growing at ambient and elevated carbon dioxide concentrationTree Physiol.1610151021PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Vitousek, P M, Denslow, J S 1986Nitrogen and phosphorus availability in treefall gaps of a lowland tropical rainforestJ. Ecol.7411671178Google Scholar
  52. Vitousek, P M, Gosz, J R, Grier, C C, Melillo, J M, Reiners, W A 1982A comparative analysis of potential nitrification and nitrate mobility in forest ecosystemsEcol. Monogr.52155177Google Scholar
  53. Vitousek, P M, Matson, P A 1985Disturbance, nitrogen availability, and nitrogen losses in an intensively managed loblolly pine plantationEcology6613601376Google Scholar
  54. Voroney, R P, Winter, J P, Beyaert, R P 1993Soil Microbial biomass C and NCarter, M R eds. Soil Sampling and Methods of AnalysisLewish PublishersBoca Roton277286Google Scholar
  55. Watts, C W, Eich, S, Dexter, AR 2000Effects of mechanical energy inputs on soil respiration at the aggregate and field scalesSoil Till. Res.53231243Google Scholar
  56. Whitehead, D C 1995Grassland NitrogenCAB InternationalWallingford397Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agricultural SciencesImperial College LondonWye, AshfordUK
  2. 2.Institute of Plant Production and AgroecologyUniversity of HohenheimStuttgartGermany

Personalised recommendations