Differential expression of major genes involved in the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates in intergeneric Baemoochae (Brassicaceae) and its parents during development

  • Adji Baskoro Dwi Nugroho
  • Narae Han
  • Aditya Nurmalita Pervitasari
  • Dong-Hwan KimEmail author
  • Jongkee KimEmail author


Key message

Thus study found the temporal and spatial relationship between production of aliphatic glucosinolate compounds and the expression profile of glucosinolate-related genes during growth and development in radish, Chinese cabbage, and their intergeneric hybrid baemoochae plants.


Glucosinolates (GSLs) are one of major bioactive compounds in Brassicaceae plants. GSLs play a role in defense against microbes as well as chemo-preventative activity against cancer, which draw attentions from plant scientists. We investigated the temporal relationship between production of aliphatic Glucosinolate (GSLs) compounds and the expression profile of GSL related genes during growth and development in radish, Chinese cabbage, and their intergeneric hybrid, baemoochae. Over the complete life cycle, Glucoraphasatin (GRH) and glucoraphanin (GRE) predominated in radish, whereas gluconapin (GNP), glucobrassicanapin (GBN), and glucoraphanin (GRA) abounded in Chinese cabbage. Baemoochae contained intermediate levels of all GSLs studied, indicating inheritance from both radish and Chinese cabbage. Expression patterns of BCAT4, CYP79F1, CYP83A1, UGT74B1, GRS1, FMOgs-ox1, and AOP2 genes showed a correlation to their corresponding encoded proteins in radish, Chinese cabbage, and baemoochae. Interestingly, there is a sharp change in gene expression pattern involved in side chain modification, particularly GRS1, FMOgs-ox1, and AOP2, among these plants during the vegetative and reproductive stage. For instance, the GRS1 was strongly expressed during leaf development, while both of FMOgs-ox1 and AOP2 was manifested high in floral tissues. Furthermore, expression of GRS1 gene which is responsible for GRH production was predominantly expressed in leaf tissues of radish and baemoochae, whereas it was only slightly detected in Chinese cabbage root tissue, explaining why radish has an abundance of GRH compared to other Brassica plants. Altogether, our comprehensive and comparative data proved that aliphatic GSLs biosynthesis is dynamically and precisely regulated in a tissue- and development-dependent manner in Brassicaceae family members.


Radish Chinese cabbage Baemoochae Glucosinolates GRS1 FMOgs-ox1 AOP2 





















Glucoraphasatin synthase 1


Flavin monooxygenase 1


2-Oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase 2


Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography


Quantitative Real-Time PCR



This research was supported by the CAYSS Program of Chung-Ang University to A.B.D.N. and A.N.P., IPET (Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries) through the Agri-Bio Industry Technology Development Program, funded by the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) (112011-5) to J.K. and the start-up funds (201801238-001-00) from Chung-Ang University to D.-H. K.

Author contributions

ABDN and ANP planted all plant materials and performed molecular experiments; NH and ABDN performed U-HPLC and LC–ESI–MS experiments. ABDN and JK planned the experiments; ABDN, NH, D-HK, and JK analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11103_2019_939_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.5 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1547 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant Science and TechnologyChung-Ang UniversityAnseongRepublic of Korea

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