Transcription factors involved in basal immunity in mammals and plants interact with the same MAMP-responsive cis-sequence from Arabidopsis thaliana
WRKY and NF-κB transcription factors, involved in innate immunity in plants and mammals, interact with the same cis-sequence.
Novel microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-responsive cis-sequences, designated type II WT-boxes, are required for flg22-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts. While type I WT-boxes like TGACTTTT and CGACTTTT interact with WRKY transcription factors (TFs), the question remained which TFs bind to the type II WT-boxes GGACTTTC, GGACTTTT, and GGACTTTG. Surprisingly, a bioinformatic analysis predicts mouse (Mus musculus) NF-κB p65 as a TF interacting with type II WT-boxes. NF-κB p65, like WRKY factors in plants, plays a role in innate immunity in mammals. Therefore, the interaction of NF-κB p65 with type II WT-boxes was tested experimentally. NF-κB p65 requires the WT-boxes GGACTTTC, GGACTTTT, and GGACTTTG for activating reporter gene expression in plant cells. NF-κB p65 directly binds to WT-box containing synthetic promoters in vitro and requires the WT-box for binding. Earlier studies indicate that the sequence GGACTTTC is also required for WRKY26 mediated reporter gene activation. Here it is shown that WRKY26, like NF-κB p65, binds to the sequence GGACTTTC. Consistent with other recent studies, type II WT boxes are WRKY binding sites and the distinction between type I and type II no longer applies.
KeywordsBioinformatics Gel shift experiments Innate immunity Transient expression WT-box
We would like to thank Elke Faurie for excellent technical assistance, and Norbert Käufer for critical reading of the manuscript. We are grateful to Christopher Eickhorst and Kazuhiko Namikawa for the gift of mouse mRNA and to Imre Somssich for helpful advice regarding WRKY26 electrophoretic mobility shift assays. This work was supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany (Hochschulpakt 2020).
RH conceived the idea. KK, CJS, AS, AM perfomed the experiments and analysed the data. RH and KK wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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