Transient induction of a subset of ethylene biosynthesis genes is potentially involved in regulation of grapevine bud dormancy release
Transient increases in ethylene biosynthesis, achieved by tight regulation of transcription of specific ACC oxidase and ACC synthase genes, play a role in activation of grapevine bud dormancy release.
The molecular mechanisms regulating dormancy release in grapevine buds are as yet unclear. It has been hypothesized that its core involves perturbation of respiration which induces an interplay between ethylene and ABA metabolism that removes repression and allows regrowth. Roles for hypoxia and ABA metabolism in this process have been previously supported. The potential involvement of ethylene biosynthesis in regulation of dormancy release, which has received little attention so far, is now explored. Our results indicate that (1) ethylene biosynthesis is induced by hydrogen cyanamide (HC) and azide (AZ), known artificial stimuli of dormancy release, (2) inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and signalling antagonize dormancy release by HC/AZ treatments, (3) ethylene application induces dormancy release, (4) there are two sets of bud-expressed ethylene biosynthesis genes which are differentially regulated, (5) only one set is transiently upregulated by HC/AZ and during the natural dormancy cycle, concomitant with changes in ethylene levels, and (6) levels of ACC oxidase transcripts and ethylene sharply decrease during natural dormancy release, whereas ACC accumulates. Given these results, we propose that transient increases in ethylene biosynthesis prior to dormancy release, achieved primarily by regulation of transcription of specific ACC oxidase genes, play a role in activation of dormancy release.
KeywordsVitis vinifera ACC synthase (ACS) ACC oxidase (ACO) Bud Dormancy Ethylene Grapevine
This research was supported by the United States-Israel Binational Agricultural Research and Development Fund (BARD Grant No. IS-4639-13 to EO, DG, and RO). We thank Felix Shaya from the metabolomics unit of ARO for ACC quantitation. We also thank the China Scholarship Council for joint PhD fellowships provided to Zhaowan Shi.
Conceptualization: ZS, TH-B, RO, DWG, EO; investigation: ZS, TH-B, CZ, MW; writing—original draft: ZS, TH-B, EO; writing—review & editing: RO, DWG, XP, EO.
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