The zinc-finger transcription factor ZAT6 is essential for hydrogen peroxide induction of anthocyanin synthesis in Arabidopsis
- 467 Downloads
The accumulation of flavonoids is activated by various abiotic stresses, and the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) especially hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a general response to abiotic stress in plants. However, the direct link between flavonoids and H2O2 and underlying mechanism remain elusive. In this study, we found that the concentrations of anthocyanin and flavonoids were significantly induced by H2O2 treatment. Furthermore, we found that the transcript level of ZINC FINGER of ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA 6 (ZAT6) was significantly activated after exogenous H2O2 treatment, and modulation of AtZAT6 expression positively affected the concentrations of both anthocyanin and total flavonoids. Notably, exogenous H2O2-induced anthocyanin synthesis was largely alleviated in AtZAT6 knockdown plants, but showed higher level in AtZAT6 overexpressing plants. AtZAT6 directly activated the expressions of TT5, TT7, TT3, TT18, MYB12, and MYB111 through binding to their promoters with TACAAT elements of these genes, and the activation of MYB12 and MYB111 up-regulated the expressions of TT4 and TT6. Taken together, this study indicates that AtZAT6 plays important role in H2O2-activated anthocyanin synthesis, via directly binding to the promoters of several genes that involved in anthocyanin synthesis.
KeywordsAnthocyanin synthesis Flavonoid Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) Transcription factor ZAT6 Arabidopsis
This research was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31570249), the startup funding and the Scientific Research Foundation of Hainan University (No. kyqd1531) to Haitao Shi.
HS conceived and designed the experiments. HS, GL and YW performed the experiments and analyzed the manuscript. HS wrote and revised the manuscript. ZC provided suggestions and revised the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Grunewald W, De Smet I, Lewis DR, Löfke C, Jansen L, Goeminne G, Vanden Bossche R, Karimi M, De Rybel B, Vanholme B, Teichmann T, Boerjan W, Van Montagu MC, Gheysen G, Muday GK, Friml J, Beeckman T (2012) Transcription factor WRKY23 assists auxin distribution patterns during Arabidopsis root development through local control on flavonol biosynthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:1554–1559CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Hartmann U, Sagasser M, Mehrtens F, Stracke R, Weisshaar B (2005) Differential combinatorial interactions of cis-acting elements recognized by R2R3-MYB, BZIP, and BHLH factors control light-responsive and tissue-specific activation of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis genes. Plant Mol Biol 57:155–171CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kusano M, Tohge T, Fukushima A, Kobayashi M, Hayashi N, Otsuki H, Kondou Y, Goto H, Kawashima M, Matsuda F, Niida R, Matsui M, Saito K, Fernie AR (2011) Metabolomics reveals comprehensive reprogramming involving two independent metabolic responses of Arabidopsis to UV-B light. Plant J 67:354–369CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Leivar P, Tepperman JM, Cohn MM, Monte E, Al-Sady B, Erickson E, Quail PH (2012) Dynamic antagonism between phytochromes and PIF family basic helix-loop-helix factors induces selective reciprocal responses to light and shade in a rapidly responsive transcriptional network in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 24:1398–1419CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Luo J, Nishiyama Y, Fuell C, Taguchi G, Elliott K, Hill L, Tanaka Y, Kitayama M, Yamazaki M, Bailey P, Parr A, Michael AJ, Saito K, Martin C (2007) Convergent evolution in the BAHD family of acyl transferases: identification and characterization of anthocyanin acyl transferases from Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J 50:678–695CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Maier A, Schrader A, Kokkelink L, Falke C, Welter B, Iniesto E, Rubio V, Uhrig JF, Hülskamp M, Hoecker U (2013) Light and the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1/SPA control the protein stability of the MYB transcription factors PAP1 and PAP2 involved in anthocyanin accumulation in Arabidopsis. Plant J 74:638–651CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Misra P, Pandey A, Tiwari M, Chandrashekar K, Sidhu OP, Asif MH, Chakrabarty D, Singh PK, Trivedi PK, Nath P, Tuli R (2010) Modulation of transcriptome and metabolome of tobacco by Arabidopsis transcription factor, AtMYB12, leads to insect resistance. Plant Physiol 152:2258–2268CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Nakabayashi R, Yonekura-Sakakibara K, Urano K, Suzuki M, Yamada Y, Nishizawa T, Matsuda F, Kojima M, Sakakibara H, Shinozaki K, Michael AJ, Tohge T, Yamazaki M, Saito K (2014) Enhancement of oxidative and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis by overaccumulation of antioxidant flavonoids. Plant J 77:367–379CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shi H, Wang X, Ye T, Chen F, Deng J, Yang P, Zhang Y, Chan Z (2014) The Cysteine2/Histidine2-type transcription factor zinc finger of Arabidopsis thaliana 6 modulates biotic and abiotic stress responses by activating salicylic acid-related genes and C-REPEAT-BINDING FACTOR genes in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 165:1367–1379CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Stracke R, Ishihara H, Huep G, Barsch A, Mehrtens F, Niehaus K, Weisshaar B (2007) Differential regulation of closely related R2R3-MYB transcription factors controls flavonol accumulation in different parts of the Arabidopsis thaliana seedling. Plant J 50:660–677CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Stracke R, Jahns O, Keck M, Tohge T, Niehaus K, Fernie AR, Weisshaar B (2010b) Analysis of production of flavonol glycosides-dependent flavonol glycoside accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana plants reveals MYB11-, MYB12- and MYB111-independent flavonol glycoside accumulation. New Phytol 188:985–1000CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vanderauwera S, Zimmermann P, Rombauts S, Vandenabeele S, Langebartels C, Gruissem W, Inzé D, Van Breusegem F (2005) Genome-wide analysis of hydrogen peroxide-regulated gene expression in Arabidopsis reveals a high light-induced transcriptional cluster involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Plant Physiol 139:806–821CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Xu W, Grain D, Le Gourrierec J, Harscoët E, Berger A, Jauvion V, Scagnelli A, Berger N, Bidzinski P, Kelemen Z, Salsac F, Baudry A, Routaboul JM, Lepiniec L, Dubos C (2013) Regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis involves an unexpected complex transcriptional regulation of TT8 expression, in Arabidopsis. New Phytol 198:59–70CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhang Y, Butelli E, De Stefano R, Schoonbeek HJ, Magusin A, Pagliarani C, Wellner N, Hill L, Orzaez D, Granell A, Jones JD, Martin C (2013) Anthocyanins double the shelf life of tomatoes by delaying overripening and reducing susceptibility to gray mold. Curr Biol 23:1094–1100CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar