Plant Molecular Biology

, Volume 87, Issue 4–5, pp 459–471 | Cite as

Characterization of common and distinctive adjustments of wild barley leaf proteome under drought acclimation, heat stress and their combination

  • Ahmed Ashoub
  • Marion Baeumlisberger
  • Moritz Neupaertl
  • Michael Karas
  • Wolfgang Brüggemann


In nature, plants are often exposed to combinations of different stresses at the same time, while in many laboratory studies of molecular stress induction phenomena, single stress responses are analyzed. This study aims to identify the common (i.e. more general stress-responsive) and the stress-specific adjustments of the leaf proteome of wild barley to two often co-occurring stress phenomena, i.e. in response to (long-term) drought acclimation (DA) or to (transient) heat stress (HS). In addition, we analyzed those alterations which are specific for the combination of both stresses. Leaf proteome analysis was performed using 2D difference gel electrophoresis followed by protein identification via mass spectrometry with a 1.5 threshold value of changes in relative protein contents. DA resulted in specific upregulation of proteins with cell detoxification functions, water homeostasis maintenance, amino acids synthesis and lipid metabolism and distinct forms of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and proteins with chaperon functions while proteins related to nitrogen metabolism were downregulated. This response was distinguished from the response to transient HS, which included upregulation of a broad range of HSP products. The common response to both stressors revealed upregulation of additional forms of HSPs and the downregulation of enzymes of the photosynthetic apparatus and chlorophyll binding proteins. The simultaneous exposure to both stress conditions resulted mostly in a combination of both stress responses and to unique abundance changes of proteins with yet unclear functions.


Detoxification Difference gel electrophoresis Drought acclimation Heat shock proteins Heat stress Wild barley 



Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase


Difference gel electrophoresis


Drought acclimation


Equilibration solution


Heat shock proteins


Heat stress


Leaf relative water content


Mass spectrometry


Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization


Peptide mass fingerprint


Photosystem II


Reactive oxygen species


Resuspension buffer


Rubisco activase


Small heat shock proteins


Two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis


Volumetric water content



This work was supported by a DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service) grant to A. Ashoub under the Alumni Re-Invitation Program.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed Ashoub
    • 1
    • 2
  • Marion Baeumlisberger
    • 3
  • Moritz Neupaertl
    • 3
  • Michael Karas
    • 3
  • Wolfgang Brüggemann
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of Ecology, Evolution, and DiversityJohann Wolfgang Goethe-University FrankfurtFrankfurt am MainGermany
  2. 2.Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute (AGERI), ARCGizaEgypt
  3. 3.Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Cluster of Excellence “Macromolecular Complexes”Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University FrankfurtFrankfurt am MainGermany
  4. 4.Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F)Frankfurt am MainGermany

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