A genome-wide BAC end-sequence survey of sugarcane elucidates genome composition, and identifies BACs covering much of the euchromatin
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BAC-end sequences (BESs) of hybrid sugarcane cultivar R570 are presented. A total of 66,990 informative BESs were obtained from 43,874 BAC clones. Similarity search using a variety of public databases revealed that 13.5 and 42.8 % of BESs match known gene-coding and repeat regions, respectively. That 11.7 % of BESs are still unmatched to any nucleotide sequences in the current public databases despite the fact that a close relative, sorghum, is fully sequenced, indicates that there may be many sugarcane-specific or lineage-specific sequences. We found 1,742 simple sequence repeat motifs in 1,585 BESs, spanning 27,383 bp in length. As simple sequence repeat markers derived from BESs have some advantages over randomly generated markers, these may be particularly useful for comparing BAC-based physical maps with genetic maps. BES and overgo hybridization information was used for anchoring sugarcane BAC clones to the sorghum genome sequence. While sorghum and sugarcane have extensive similarity in terms of genomic structure, only 2,789 BACs (6.4 %) could be confidently anchored to the sorghum genome at the stringent threshold of having both-end information (BESs or overgos) within 300 Kb. This relatively low rate of anchoring may have been caused in part by small- or large-scale genomic rearrangements in the Saccharum genus after two rounds of whole genome duplication since its divergence from the sorghum lineage about 7.8 million years ago. Limiting consideration to only low-copy matches, 1,245 BACs were placed to 1,503 locations, covering ~198 Mb of the sorghum genome or about 78 % of the estimated 252 Mb of euchromatin. BESs and their analyses presented here may provide an early profile of the sugarcane genome as well as a basis for BAC-by-BAC sequencing of much of the basic gene set of sugarcane.