Identification and characterization of high temperature stress responsive genes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and their regulation at various stages of development
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To elucidate the effect of high temperature, wheat plants (Triticum aestivum cv. CPAN 1676) were given heat shock at 37 and 42°C for 2 h, and responsive genes were identified through PCR-Select Subtraction technology. Four subtractive cDNA libraries, including three forward and one reverse subtraction, were constructed from three different developmental stages. A total of 5,500 ESTs were generated and 3,516 high quality ESTs submitted to Genbank. More than one-third of the ESTs generated fall in unknown/no hit category upon homology search through BLAST analysis. Differential expression was confirmed by cDNA macroarray and by northern/RT-PCR analysis. Expression analysis of wheat plants subjected to high temperature stress, after 1 and 4 days of recovery, showed fast recovery in seedling tissue. However, even after 4 days, recovery was negligible in the developing seed tissue after 2 h of heat stress. Ten selected genes were analyzed in further detail including one unknown protein and a new heat shock factor, by quantitative real-time PCR in an array of 35 different wheat tissues representing major developmental stages as well as different abiotic stresses. Tissue specificity was examined along with cross talk with other abiotic stresses and putative signalling molecules.