Plant Molecular Biology

, Volume 70, Issue 3, pp 311–325 | Cite as

Expression profile of calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPKs) genes during the whole lifespan and under phytohormone treatment conditions in rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica)

  • Shuifeng Ye
  • Lei Wang
  • Weibo Xie
  • Bingliang Wan
  • Xianghua Li
  • Yongjun Lin


Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) control plant development and response to various stress environments through the important roles in the regulation of Ca2+ signaling. Thirty-one CDPK genes have been identified in the rice genome by a complete search of the genome based upon HMM profiles. In this study, the expression of this gene family was analyzed using the Affymetrix rice genome array in three rice cultivars: Minghui 63, Zhenshan 97, and their hybrid Shanyou 63 independently. Twenty-seven tissues sampled throughout the entire rice life-span were studied, along with three hormone treatments (GA3, NAA and KT), applied to the seedling at the trefoil stage. All 31 genes were found to be expressed in at least one of the experimental stages studied and revealed diverse expression patterns. We identified differential expression of the OsCPK genes in the stamen (1 day before flowering), the panicle (at the heading stage), the endosperm (days after pollination) and also in callus, in all three cultivars. Eight genes, OsCPK2, OsCPK11, OsCPK14, OsCPK22, OsCPK25, OsCPK26, OsCPK27 and OsCPK29 were found dominantly expressed in the panicle and the stamen, and five genes, OsCPK6, OsCPK7, OsCPK12, OsCPK23 and OsCPK31 were up-regulated in the endosperm stage. The OsCPK genes were also found to be regulated in rice seedlings subjected to different hormone treatment conditions, however their expression were not the same for all varieties. These diverse expression profiles trigger the functional analysis of the CDPK family in rice.


Rice Calcium-dependent protein kinases Expression profile Phytohormone Oryza sativa 



This research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program) and the National Program on Research and Development of Transgenic Plants. We thank Dr John Bennett for helpful suggestions for revising the manuscript.

Supplementary material

11103_2009_9475_MOESM1_ESM.xls (130 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLS 130 kb)
11103_2009_9475_MOESM2_ESM.xls (34 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (XLS 35 kb)
11103_2009_9475_MOESM3_ESM.xls (16 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (XLS 17 kb)


  1. Abbasi F, Onodera H, Toki S, Tanaka H, Komatsu S (2004) OsCDPK13, a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene from rice, is induced by cold and gibberellin in rice leaf sheath. Plant Mol Biol 55:541–552. doi: 10.1007/s11103-004-1178-y PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abo-el-Saad M, Wu R (1995) A rice membrane calcium-dependent protein kinase is induced by gibberellin. Plant Physiol 108:787–793. doi: 10.1104/pp.108.2.787 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Altschul SF, Madden TL, Schaffer AA, Zhang J, Zhang Z, Miller W, Lipman DJ (1997) Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Res 25:3389–3402. doi: 10.1093/nar/25.17.3389 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anil VS, Sankara Rao K (2001) Purification and characterization of a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase from sandalwood (Santalum album L.): evidence for Ca(2+)-induced conformational changes. Phytochemistry 58:203–212. doi: 10.1016/S0031-9422(01)00231-X PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anil VS, Harmon AC, Rao KS (2000) Spatio-temporal accumulation and activity of calcium-dependent protein kinases during embryogenesis, seed development, and germination in sandalwood. Plant Physiol 122:1035–1043. doi: 10.1104/pp.122.4.1035 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Asano T, Kunieda N, Omura Y, Ibe H, Kawasaki T, Takano M, Sato M, Furuhashi H, Mujin T, Takaiwa F, Wu CY, Tada Y, Satozawa T, Sakamoto M, Shimada H (2002) Rice SPK, a calmodulin-like domain protein kinase, is required for storage product accumulation during seed development: phosphorylation of sucrose synthase is a possible factor. Plant Cell 14:619–628. doi: 10.1105/tpc.010454 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Asano T, Tanaka N, Yang G, Hayashi N, Komatsu S (2005) Genome-wide identification of the rice calcium-dependent protein kinase and its closely related kinase gene families: comprehensive analysis of the CDPKs gene family in rice. Plant Cell Physiol 46:356–366. doi: 10.1093/pcp/pci035 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bateman A, Coin L, Durbin R, Finn RD, Hollich V, Griffiths-Jones S, Khanna A, Marshall M, Moxon S, Sonnhammer EL, Studholme DJ, Yeats C, Eddy SR (2004) The Pfam protein families database. Nucleic Acids Res 32:D138–D141. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkh121 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Breviario D, Morello L, Giani S (1995) Molecular cloning of two novel rice cDNA sequences encoding putative calcium-dependent protein kinases. Plant Mol Biol 27:953–967. doi: 10.1007/BF00037023 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cheng SH, Willmann MR, Chen HC, Sheen J (2002) Calcium signaling through protein kinases. The Arabidopsis calcium-dependent protein kinase gene family. Plant Physiol 129:469–485. doi: 10.1104/pp.005645 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Choi HI, Park HJ, Park JH, Kim S, Im MY, Seo HH, Kim YW, Hwang I, Kim SY (2005) Arabidopsis calcium-dependent protein kinase AtCPK32 interacts with ABF4, a transcriptional regulator of abscisic acid-responsive gene expression, and modulates its activity. Plant Physiol 139:1750–1761. doi: 10.1104/pp.105.069757 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Christodoulou J, Malmendal A, Harper JF, Chazin WJ (2004) Evidence for differing roles for each lobe of the calmodulin-like domain in a calcium-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem 279:29092–29100. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M401297200 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eddy SR (1998) Profile hidden Markov models. Bioinformatics 14:755–763. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/14.9.755 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Estruch JJ, Kadwell S, Merlin E, Crossland L (1994) Cloning and characterization of a maize pollen-specific calcium-dependent calmodulin-independent protein kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:8837–8841. doi: 10.1073/pnas.91.19.8837 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Evans NH, McAinsh MR, Hetherington AM (2001) Calcium oscillations in higher plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol 4:415–420. doi: 10.1016/S1369-5266(00)00194-1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Falquet L, Pagni M, Bucher P, Hulo N, Sigrist CJ, Hofmann K, Bairoch A (2002) The PROSITE database, its status in 2002. Nucleic Acids Res 30:235–238. doi: 10.1093/nar/30.1.235 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Franklin-Tong VE (1999) Signaling and the modulation of pollen tube growth. Plant Cell 11:727–738PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Guo AY, Zhu QH, Chen X, Luo JC (2007) GSDS: a gene structure display server. Yi Chuan 29:1023–1026. doi: 10.1360/yc-007-1023 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Harmon AC (2003) Calcium-regulated protein kinases of plants. Gravit Space Biol Bull 16:83–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Harmon AC, Gribskov M, Harper JF (2000) CDPKs - a kinase for every Ca2+ signal? Trends Plant Sci 5:154–159. doi: 10.1016/S1360-1385(00)01577-6 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Harmon AC, Gribskov M, Gubrium E, Harper JF (2001) The CDPK superfamily of protein kinases. New Phytol 151:175–183. doi: 10.1046/j.1469-8137.2001.00171.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Harper JF, Harmon A (2005) Plants, symbiosis and parasites: a calcium signalling connection. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:555–566. doi: 10.1038/nrm1679 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hepler PK, Vidali L, Cheung AY (2001) Polarized cell growth in higher plants. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 17:159–187. doi: 10.1146/annurev.cellbio.17.1.159 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hetherington AM, Trewavas A (1982) Calcium-dependent protein kinase in pea shoot membranes. FEBS Lett 145:67–71. doi: 10.1016/0014-5793(82)81208-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hrabak EM, Dickmann LJ, Satterlee JS, Sussman MR (1996) Characterization of eight new members of the calmodulin-like domain protein kinase gene family from Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Mol Biol 31:405–412. doi: 10.1007/BF00021802 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hrabak EM, Chan CW, Gribskov M, Harper JF, Choi JH, Halford N, Kudla J, Luan S, Nimmo HG, Sussman MR, Thomas M, Walker-Simmons K, Zhu JK, Harmon AC (2003) The Arabidopsis CDPK-SnRK superfamily of protein kinases. Plant Physiol 132:666–680. doi: 10.1104/pp.102.011999 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Johnson DR, Bhatnagar RS, Knoll LJ, Gordon JI (1994) Genetic and biochemical studies of protein N-myristoylation. Annu Rev Biochem 63:869–914. doi: 10.1146/ PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kikuchi S, Satoh K, Nagata T, Kawagashira N, Doi K, Kishimoto N, Yazaki J, Ishikawa M, Yamada H, Ooka H, Hotta I, Kojima K, Namiki T, Ohneda E, Yahagi W, Suzuki K, Li CJ, Ohtsuki K, Shishiki T, Otomo Y, Murakami K, Iida Y, Sugano S, Fujimura T, Suzuki Y, Tsunoda Y, Kurosaki T, Kodama T, Masuda H, Kobayashi M, Xie Q, Lu M, Narikawa R, Sugiyama A, Mizuno K, Yokomizo S, Niikura J, Ikeda R, Ishibiki J, Kawamata M, Yoshimura A, Miura J, Kusumegi T, Oka M, Ryu R, Ueda M, Matsubara K, Kawai J, Carninci P, Adachi J, Aizawa K, Arakawa T, Fukuda S, Hara A, Hashizume W, Hayatsu N, Imotani K, Ishii Y, Itoh M, Kagawa I, Kondo S, Konno H, Miyazaki A, Osato N, Ota Y, Saito R, Sasaki D, Sato K, Shibata K, Shinagawa A, Shiraki T, Yoshino M, Hayashizaki Y, Yasunishi A (2003) Collection, mapping, and annotation of over 28, 000 cDNA clones from japonica rice. Science 301:376–379. doi: 10.1126/science.1081288 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Klimecka M, Muszynska G (2007) Structure and functions of plant calcium-dependent protein kinases. Acta Biochim Pol 54:219–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Kumar S, Tamura K, Nei M (2004) MEGA3: Integrated software for molecular evolutionary genetics analysis and sequence alignment. Brief Bioinform 5:150–163. doi: 10.1093/bib/5.2.150 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lanteri ML, Pagnussat GC, Lamattina L (2006) Calcium and calcium-dependent protein kinases are involved in nitric oxide- and auxin-induced adventitious root formation in cucumber. J Exp Bot 57:1341–1351. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erj109 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lin H, Zhu W, Silva JC, Gu X, Buell CR (2006) Intron gain and loss in segmentally duplicated genes in rice. Genome Biol 7:41. doi: 10.1186/gb-2006-7-5-r41 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liu Z, Xia M, Poovaiah BW (1998) Chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in tobacco: differential regulation by calmodulin isoforms. Plant Mol Biol 38:889–897. doi: 10.1023/A:1006019001200 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ma SY, Wu WH (2007) AtCPK23 functions in Arabidopsis responses to drought and salt stresses. Plant Mol Biol 65:511–518. doi: 10.1007/s11103-007-9187-2 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Martin ML, Busconi L (2000) Membrane localization of a rice calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) is mediated by myristoylation and palmitoylation. Plant J 24:429–435. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313x.2000.00889.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Merchant SS, Prochnik SE, Vallon O, Harris EH, Karpowicz SJ, Witman GB, Terry A, Salamov A, Fritz-Laylin LK, Marechal-Drouard L, Marshall WF, Qu LH, Nelson DR, Sanderfoot AA, Spalding MH, Kapitonov VV, Ren Q, Ferris P, Lindquist E, Shapiro H, Lucas SM, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Cardol P, Cerutti H, Chanfreau G, Chen CL, Cognat V, Croft MT, Dent R, Dutcher S, Fernandez E, Fukuzawa H, Gonzalez-Ballester D, Gonzalez-Halphen D, Hallmann A, Hanikenne M, Hippler M, Inwood W, Jabbari K, Kalanon M, Kuras R, Lefebvre PA, Lemaire SD, Lobanov AV, Lohr M, Manuell A, Meier I, Mets L, Mittag M, Mittelmeier T, Moroney JV, Moseley J, Napoli C, Nedelcu AM, Niyogi K, Novoselov SV, Paulsen IT, Pazour G, Purton S, Ral JP, Riano-Pachon DM, Riekhof W, Rymarquis L, Schroda M, Stern D, Umen J, Willows R, Wilson N, Zimmer SL, Allmer J, Balk J, Bisova K, Chen CJ, Elias M, Gendler K, Hauser C, Lamb MR, Ledford H, Long JC, Minagawa J, Page MD, Pan J, Pootakham W, Roje S, Rose A, Stahlberg E, Terauchi AM, Yang P, Ball S, Bowler C, Dieckmann CL, Gladyshev VN, Green P, Jorgensen R, Mayfield S, Mueller-Roeber B, Rajamani S, Sayre RT, Brokstein P, Dubchak I, Goodstein D, Hornick L, Huang YW, Jhaveri J, Luo Y, Martinez D, Ngau WC, Otillar B, Poliakov A, Porter A, Szajkowski L, Werner G, Zhou K, Grigoriev IV, Rokhsar DS, Grossman AR (2007) The Chlamydomonas genome reveals the evolution of key animal and plant functions. Science 318:245–250. doi: 10.1126/science.1143609 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mori IC, Murata Y, Yang Y, Munemasa S, Wang YF, Andreoli S, Tiriac H, Alonso JM, Harper JF, Ecker JR, Kwak JM, Schroeder JI (2006) CDPKs CPK6 and CPK3 function in ABA regulation of guard cell S-type anion-Ca(2+)-permeable channels and stomatal closure. PLoS Biol 4:e327. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040327 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Moutinho A, Trewavas AJ, Malho R (1998) Relocation of a Ca2+-dependent protein kinase activity during pollen tube reorientation. Plant Cell 10:1499–1510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Poovaiah BW, Xia M, Liu Z, Wang W, Yang T, Sathyanarayanan PV, Franceschi VR (1999) Developmental regulation of the gene for chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in anthers. Planta 209:161–171. doi: 10.1007/s004250050618 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ray S, Agarwal P, Arora R, Kapoor S, Tyagi AK (2007) Expression analysis of calcium-dependent protein kinase gene family during reproductive development and abiotic stress conditions in rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica). Mol Genet Genomics 278:493–505. doi: 10.1007/s00438-007-0267-4 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ren J, Wen LP, Gao XJ, Jin CJ, Xue Y, Yao XB (2008) CSS-palm 2.0: an web sever for palmitoylation site prediction. Protein Eng Des Sel 21:639–644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rensing SA, Lang D, Zimmer AD, Terry A, Salamov A, Shapiro H, Nishiyama T, Perroud PF, Lindquist EA, Kamisugi Y, Tanahashi T, Sakakibara K, Fujita T, Oishi K, Shin IT, Kuroki Y, Toyoda A, Suzuki Y, Hashimoto S, Yamaguchi K, Sugano S, Kohara Y, Fujiyama A, Anterola A, Aoki S, Ashton N, Barbazuk WB, Barker E, Bennetzen JL, Blankenship R, Cho SH, Dutcher SK, Estelle M, Fawcett JA, Gundlach H, Hanada K, Heyl A, Hicks KA, Hughes J, Lohr M, Mayer K, Melkozernov A, Murata T, Nelson DR, Pils B, Prigge M, Reiss B, Renner T, Rombauts S, Rushton PJ, Sanderfoot A, Schween G, Shiu SH, Stueber K, Theodoulou FL, Tu H, Van de Peer Y, Verrier PJ, Waters E, Wood A, Yang L, Cove D, Cuming AC, Hasebe M, Lucas S, Mishler BD, Reski R, Grigoriev IV, Quatrano RS, Boore JL (2008) The Physcomitrella genome reveals evolutionary insights into the conquest of land by plants. Science 319:64–69. doi: 10.1126/science.1150646 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Roy SW, Penny D (2007) Patterns of intron loss and gain in plants: intron loss-dominated evolution and genome-wide comparison of O. sativa and A. thaliana. Mol Biol Evol 24:171–181. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msl159 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Saijo Y, Hata S, Sheen J, Izui K (1997) cDNA cloning and prokaryotic expression of maize calcium-dependent protein kinases. Biochim Biophys Acta 1350:109–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Saijo Y, Hata S, Kyozuka J, Shimamoto K, Izui K (2000) Over-expression of a single Ca2+-dependent protein kinase confers both cold and salt/drought tolerance on rice plants. Plant J 23:319–327. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313x.2000.00787.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sanders D, Pelloux J, Brownlee C, Harper JF (2002) Calcium at the crossroads of signaling. Plant Cell 14(Suppl):S401–S417Google Scholar
  47. Sheen J (1996) Ca2+-dependent protein kinases and stress signal transduction in plants. Science 274:1900–1902. doi: 10.1126/science.274.5294.1900 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shimada H, Koishihara H, Saito Y, Arashima Y, Furukawa T, Hayashi H (2004) A rice antisense SPK transformant that lacks the accumulation of seed storage substances shows no correlation between sucrose concentration in phloem sap and demand for carbon sources in the sink organs. Plant Cell Physiol 45:1105–1109. doi: 10.1093/pcp/pch122 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Thompson JD, Gibson TJ, Plewniak F, Jeanmougin F, Higgins DG (1997) The CLUSTAL_X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res 25:4876–4882. doi: 10.1093/nar/25.24.4876 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Towler DA, Gordon JI, Adams SP, Glaser L (1988) The biology and enzymology of eukaryotic protein acylation. Annu Rev Biochem 57:69–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Trewavas AJ, Malho R (1998) Ca2+ signalling in plant cells: the big network!. Curr Opin Plant Biol 1:428–433. doi: 10.1016/S1369-5266(98)80268-9 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ulloa RM, Raices M, MacIntosh GC, Maldonado S, Tellez-Inon MT (2002) Jasmonic acid affects plant morphology and calcium-dependent protein kinase expression and activity in Solanum tuberosum. Physiol Plant 115:417–427. doi: 10.1034/j.1399-3054.2002.1150312.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Urao T, Katagiri T, Mizoguchi T, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Hayashida N, Shinozaki K (1994) Two genes that encode Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases are induced by drought and high-salt stresses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol Gen Genet 244:331–340. doi: 10.1007/BF00286684 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wan B, Lin Y, Mou T (2007) Expression of rice Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) genes under different environmental stresses. FEBS Lett 581:1179–1189. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2007.02.030 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wu Z, Irizarry RA, Gentleman R, Murillo FM (2004) A model based background adjustment for oligonucleotide expression arrays. J Am Stat Assoc 99:909–917. doi: 10.1198/016214504000000683 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Yang G, Shen S, Yang S, Komatsu S (2003) OsCDPK13, a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene from rice, is induced in response to cold and gibberellin. Plant Physiol Biochem 41:369–374. doi: 10.1016/S0981-9428(03)00032-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Yoon GM, Cho HS, Ha HJ, Liu JR, Lee HS (1999) Characterization of NtCDPK1, a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene in Nicotiana tabacum, and the activity of its encoded protein. Plant Mol Biol 39:991–1001. doi: 10.1023/A:1006170512542 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Yoon GM, Dowd PE, Gilroy S, McCubbin AG (2006) Calcium-dependent protein kinase isoforms in Petunia have distinct functions in pollen tube growth, including regulating polarity. Plant Cell 18:867–878. doi: 10.1105/tpc.105.037135 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Yu J, Hu S, Wang J, Wong GK, Li S, Liu B, Deng Y, Dai L, Zhou Y, Zhang X, Cao M, Liu J, Sun J, Tang J, Chen Y, Huang X, Lin W, Ye C, Tong W, Cong L, Geng J, Han Y, Li L, Li W, Hu G, Li J, Liu Z, Qi Q, Li T, Wang X, Lu H, Wu T, Zhu M, Ni P, Han H, Dong W, Ren X, Feng X, Cui P, Li X, Wang H, Xu X, Zhai W, Xu Z, Zhang J, He S, Xu J, Zhang K, Zheng X, Dong J, Zeng W, Tao L, Ye J, Tan J, Chen X, He J, Liu D, Tian W, Tian C, Xia H, Bao Q, Li G, Gao H, Cao T, Zhao W, Li P, Chen W, Zhang Y, Hu J, Liu S, Yang J, Zhang G, Xiong Y, Li Z, Mao L, Zhou C, Zhu Z, Chen R, Hao B, Zheng W, Chen S, Guo W, Tao M, Zhu L, Yuan L, Yang H (2002) A draft sequence of the rice genome (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica). Science 296:79–92. doi: 10.1126/science.1068037 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yu XC, Li MJ, Gao GF, Feng HZ, Geng XQ, Peng CC, Zhu SY, Wang XJ, Shen YY, Zhang DP (2006) Abscisic acid stimulates a calcium-dependent protein kinase in grape berry. Plant Physiol 140:558–579. doi: 10.1104/pp.105.074971 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yuan Q, Ouyang S, Wang A, Zhu W, Maiti R, Lin H, Hamilton J, Haas B, Sultana R, Cheung F, Wortman J, Buell CR (2005) The institute for genomic research Osa1 rice genome annotation database. Plant Physiol 138:18–26. doi: 10.1104/pp.104.059063 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zhang M, Liang S, Lu YT (2005) Cloning and functional characterization of NtCPK4, a new tobacco calcium-dependent protein kinase. Biochim Biophys Acta 1729:174–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Zhu SY, Yu XC, Wang XJ, Zhao R, Li Y, Fan RC, Shang Y, Du SY, Wang XF, Wu FQ, Xu YH, Zhang XY, Zhang DP (2007) Two calcium-dependent protein kinases, CPK4 and CPK11, regulate abscisic acid signal transduction in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 19:3019–3036. doi: 10.1105/tpc.107.050666 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shuifeng Ye
    • 1
  • Lei Wang
    • 1
  • Weibo Xie
    • 1
  • Bingliang Wan
    • 1
  • Xianghua Li
    • 1
  • Yongjun Lin
    • 1
  1. 1.National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement and National Centre of Plant Gene ResearchHuazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations