Cross-regulatory mechanisms in hormone signaling
Recent studies suggest that hormones act through a web of interacting responses rather than through isolated linear pathways. This signal integration architecture may be one mechanism for increasing the specificity of outcomes in different cellular contexts. Several common themes for cross-regulation between pathways can be observed. Here, we propose a classification scheme for different levels of signaling pathway cross-regulation. This scheme is based on which parts of the individual pathways are acting as information conduits between pathways. Examples from the recent plant hormone biology literature are used to illustrate the different modes of interaction.
KeywordsCross-regulation Cross-talk Plant hormones Auxin Brassinosteroids Gibberellins Ethylene Jasmonates Abscisic acid
- Komarova NL, Zou X, Nie Q, Bardwell L (2005) A theoretical framework for specificity in cell signaling. Mol Syst Biol 1:2005.0023Google Scholar
- Mathesius U, Schlaman HR, Spaink HP, Of Sautter C, Rolfe BG, Djordjevic MA (1998) Auxin transport inhibition precedes root nodule formation in white clover roots and is regulated by flavonoids and derivatives of chitin oligosaccharides. Plant J 14:23–34. doi:10.1046/j.1365-313X.1998.00090.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nordstrom A, Tarkowski P, Tarkowska D, Norbaek R, Astot C, Dolezal K et al (2004) Auxin regulation of cytokinin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana: a factor of potential importance for auxin-cytokinin-regulated development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:8039–8044. doi:10.1073/pnas.0402504101 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar